Category Archives: Moon

VIEW LIVE: NASA prepares to launch moon mission with Artemis 1 rocket

At Kennedy Space Center, NASA’s Space Launch System is rolled out to Launch Pad 39B ahead of the Artemis 1 mission to the moon.

#Artemis #NASA #Moon

NASA’s Artemis 1 moon mission is poised to launch a new era of U.S. lunar exploration this month. The mission will carry a lot of science payloads, and you can listen in on three teleconferences for free.

NASA’s final press teleconference of the week will be at 12 p. EDT (1600 GMT) on Wednesday (Aug. 17). It will focus on radiation science NASA hopes to glean from the Artemis 1 mission.

The Orion spacecraft will include a radiation vest, plant experiments, and a cubesat that will grow yeast in space.

NASA’s Johnson Space Center, German Aerospace Center, StemRad, Southwest Research Institute and NASA’s Ames Research Center.

NASA will webcast live views of a Russian spacewalk on Wednesday from 9 a.m. EDT (1300 GMT).

The NASA Artemis 1 megarocket rolls back to the launch pad for its moon mission.
Artemis 1 rollout

Artemis 1 rollout

NASA’s webcast of the Artemis 1 rollout will begin at 10:45 a.m. EDT (1445 GMT) on Thursday, Aug. 18. A SpaceX Dragon cargo ship will depart the ISS on Thursday, Aug. 18.

NASA officials held a teleconference on Monday to highlight the lunar science payloads riding on Artemis I. The CubeSats will perform science and technology experiments in deep space.

At the briefing, NASA will introduce Jacob Bleacher, Craig Hardgrove, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Ryu Funase, Ben Malphrus, and Joseph Shoer.

NASA’s next briefing will be on Tuesday, Aug. 16, at 12 p.m. EDT (1600 GMT). Agency officials will discuss the technology demonstration and solar system science payloads riding aboard the mission.

NASA’s cubesat will use high-definition cameras and advanced imaging software to record images of the ICPS and the Earth and moon.

NASA’s NEOScout mission will launch with the Artemis I uncrewed test flight and will visit an asteroid called 2020 GE. It will use solar radiation for propulsion.

NASA aims to roll out the Space Launch System megarocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B on Tuesday (Aug. 16). The rollout will take several hours.

NASA’s Artemis 1 rocket rollout is set for 9 p.m. EDT on Aug. 16 .

UK and beyond are illuminated by the Buck Moon display

In this time of year, when the moon is closest to the Earth, the Buck Moon or supermoon is the biggest and brightest full moon. The spectacular supermoon lit up the night sky on Wednesday night for lucky stargazers across the UK.

Around this time of year, male deer shed and regrow their antlers, which is why the full moon in July is known as Buck Moon.

Moon rising above the Needles on the Isle of Wight
Image caption, Graham Wiffen captured this picture of the moon over The Needles on the Isle of Wight

English skies have been lit up by what is believed to be the biggest and brightest moon of the year.

The Buck Moon – July’s full moon – was most visible Wednesday evening and was classified as a “supermoon”.

Due to its proximity to perigee, the Moon was larger and brighter during this event.

NASA cited the Maine Farmer’s Almanac as saying the Algonquin Native Americans of what is now the north-east United States called it the “Buck Moon.” It occurs when buck deer begin to grow antlers.

Moon in Beeley Moor
Image caption, The Buck Moon was captured by local resident Jim in Beeley Moor, Derbyshire

Clear skies allowed lots of people to enjoy the impressive spectacle. The Buck Moon will be the biggest and brightest supermoon of the year because it represents the moon’s closest point to the Earth in 2022. The moon orbits the Earth on an elliptical path, rather than a circular one.

Moon in Burbage
Image caption, Andy Johson in Burbage, Leicestershire, grabbed a close-up view
Moon in Matlock
Image caption, Chris Cookman took this picture in Matlock, Derbyshire
Moon in Matlock
Image caption, Another picture of the supermoon in Matlock taken by Chris Cookman
Moon in Ripley
Image caption, Hiding behind the trees, this picture of the moon was captured in Ripley, Derbyshire
Buck Moon in East Leake
Image caption, A close-up taken by Maggie T Howlett in East Leake, Nottinghamshire

UK Buck Moon

The Supermoon as it rises through low clouds from Lauder Moor in the Scottish Borders

Awesome photographs have captured Buck Moon at various locations throughout the UK and elsewhere in the world.

How Big Is the Moon | The Moon’s size compared to Earth

The moon is the brightest object in our night sky. It seems quite large, but only because it is the closest celestial body. The Moon is a little more than one-fourth the size of the Earth (27%), which is much smaller than the size ratios of other satellites to their planets.

How big is the Moon compared to Earth?

Size comparison between Earth and the Moon, including diameter, surface area, and volume. Video made by: Spacetime.

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Our moon is the fifth largest satellite in the solar system. The Moon has an average radius of 1,737.5 km and a diameter of 3,475 km, less than one-third the diameter of the Earth. The equatorial circumference is 10,917 km. The area is about 38 million square kilometers, which is smaller than the total area of the Asian continent of 44.5 million square kilometers.

“If you imagine that the Earth is the size of a coin, then the Moon can be compared to a coffee bean,” the researchers say.

Earth's Moon is 3.7x smaller than Earth
SIZE COMPARISON – Earth’s Moon.

Mass, density, and gravity

The mass of the Moon is 7.35 × 10^22 kg, about 1.2% of the mass of the Earth. In other words, the Earth weighs 81 times more than the Moon. The density of the Moon is 3.34 g/cm3. It is about 60% of the density of the Earth. The Moon is the second densest satellite in the solar system after the Jupiterian Io, whose similar parameter is 3.53 g/cm3.

The Moon’s gravitational force is only 16.6% of the Earth’s. A man who weighs 45 kg on Earth will weigh only 7.5 kg on the Moon. A person who can jump 3 meters on Earth will be able to jump almost 18 meters on the Moon.

As on most worlds in the solar system, the Moon’s gravity varies depending on its surface characteristics. In 2012, NASA’s GRAIL mission mapped lunar gravity in unprecedented detail.

“When we see a marked change in the gravitational field, we can synchronize that change with surface topography features, such as craters or mountains,” said mission collaborator Maria Zuber of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in a statement.

45 Amazing Moon Facts You Know Nothing About.

Although we can observe the Moon in the night sky (and sometimes in daylight), it is difficult to put its size and distance from Earth into perspective.

In this article we answered the questions “How big is the moon?” “And how big is the moon relative to the size of the earth?”

This article tries to answer the question with the help of text, images, and video. At our site, you will find answers to all the important questions concerning the solar system.

How Many Planets Can You Fit Between the Moon and Earth?

The average distance between Earth and the moon is 384,000 kilometers. The largest planet in our solar system is Jupiter with a diameter of 1,400,000 kilometers, which means that fewer than three of these planets can fit between Earth and the Moon. The truth is that Jupiter is about as big as a planet can be (diametrically speaking).

Depends on the size of the planets

The smallest planet in the solar system is mercury with a diameter of 4900 km, which means that between the Earth and the moon you can fit about 80 of these planets.

But a planet can be even smaller – 1,000 kilometers, if not less. There is such a body in our solar system – Dwarf planet Ceres, but it is located within the asteroid belt and is therefore defined by the new definition (which I think is silly) as a Dwarf planet rather than a true planet, as is Pluto. You can place up to 400 of these planets between the Earth and the Moon.

The answer is between about 2 and 400.

Video: What would it Look like with all the planets between the earth and the moon?

What Are The Diameters of the Planets?

  • Mercury 4,879 kilometers
  • Venus 12,104 kilometers
  • Mars 6,771 kilometers
  • Jupiter 139,822 kilometers
  • Saturn 116,464 kilometers
  • Uranus 50,724 kilometers
  • Neptune 49,244 kilometers

Total: 380,008 kilometers

All the planets of the Solar System fit between the Earth and the Moon, as illustrated in the image you can find here.

How many planets can you fit between the Moon and Earth.

What’s more, there would even be room for Pluto (if it ever regains its status as a planet).

There would also be room for Pluto, since its average diameter is 2,390 kilometers.

Despite the gigantic size of Jupiter and Saturn (alone they occupy more than half the distance) the rocky planets together do not even come close to the diameter of Neptune.

It should also be said that the calculation only works with the mean radius of the planets. With the equatorial radius, we would overshoot by about 3000 kilometers (and with the polar radius we would have even more space left over since, for example, Saturn, has an equatorial diameter of 120,000 kilometers and a polar diameter of 108,000.

Did Jupiter Influence the Formation of the Moon

The migration of Jupiter may have destabilized the orbit of other celestial bodies in the past. We have already discussed planet formation several times.

An interstellar cloud of gas and dust collapses under its own gravity, most of its mass eventually concentrates in the center and forms a star, and the dust grains orbiting it collide and combine to form larger and larger masses until they become planets. But the story of Earth’s evolution has another step that we don’t yet fully understand: the formation of the Moon.

The giant impact hypothesis

Throughout history, several different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of the Moon. Some suggested that it was ejected from the Earth in the form of a large blob of molten rock when our planet was still a large, rapidly rotating ball of magma. However, it is impossible for the Earth to rotate at a high enough speed for this to happen.

Another less extravagant idea was that the Moon formed in another region of the solar system and was captured by the gravity of our planet. This hypothesis was discarded after the Apollo missions brought back tens of kilograms of lunar rocks, since their chemical and isotopic analysis revealed that the Moon is made of material too similar to that of the Earth for the two bodies to have formed in distant regions.

With this in mind, it seems that the so-called “giant impact hypothesis” is the one that seems to best fit the current properties of our satellite. In this scenario, a celestial body the size of Mars would have collided with the primordial Earth several tens of millions of years after it was formed and the impact would have launched into space a large amount of rocky debris belonging to the two planets. Over time, the rock fragments that were left circling the Earth would have coalesced to form the Moon.

Although this model is the one that best fits today’s observations, it still presents some unknowns. One of them is that the planet that collided with the early Earth must have collided at a very tight angle so that the collision ejected large amounts of material into space without destroying the two celestial bodies. But, was this collision the result of chance, or did something happen in the early solar system that facilitated this type of collision?

Migration of planets

Today’s solar system is divided into two distinct zones:

  • Four rocky planets near the Sun in the inner solar system
  • Four gas giants much farther away in the outer solar system.

But the planets were not always structured this way.

Current models of planet formation suggest that the gas giants formed much closer to the Sun than they do today, and that their mutual gravitational interactions gradually moved them farther away from our star over the next ten million years. Therefore, the authors of a new study simulated the dynamics of the early solar system to find out how the migration of the giant planets affected the rest of the celestial bodies.

Astrophysics > Earth and Planetary Astrophysics. [Submitted on 9 Jul 2021 (v1), last revised 15 Jul 2021 (this version, v2)]. Can a jumping-Jupiter trigger the Moon’s formation impact?

Sandro R. DeSouzaFernando RoigDavid Nesvorný

In 50% of the simulations, the migration of gas giants disrupted the orbit of a rocky planetoid and put it on a collision path with Earth. However, most of these impacts did not result in the formation of a satellite. An Earth-Moon system such as we have today formed in only about 10% of the simulations.

Furthermore, the time between the beginning of the planetary migration and the impact with Earth in the simulations is about 20 million years. The magnitude of this figure is consistent with the impact date estimated from cosmochemic evidence, which suggests that it occurred between 30 and 60 million years after the gas began to dissipate in the protoplanetary disk.

Although a system such as the Earth and Moon did not form frequently in the simulations in this study, the authors conclude that the migration of giant planets is one possible mechanism that could have been triggered indirectly by the Moon.

Although the material that makes up the Moon partially “came out” of the Earth, it will not fall back onto our planet. In fact, the Moon moves 3.8 centimeters away from us every year.

The Origin of the Moon

How was the Moon created? It is not known with certainty how the moon originated, but there are numerous theories that account for its appearance in orbit. The most widely accepted theory today says that the moon was formed by a collision between the planet Earth and a Mars-sized body. The collision happend approximately 4.6 billion years ago.

The collision between the two bodies is believed to have occurred late in the Earth’s formation process, when part of its core was lost. A dust cloud formed over the Earth as a result of the collision.

The missing part of the core underwent a condensation process and approached the plane along the ecliptic plane, which caused this condensed core to go into orbit. Its temperature after condensation explains the absence of volatile compounds in lunar rocks.

The Formation of the Moon

The origin of the Moon.
The Origin of the Moon.

Since ancient times, the Moon has aroused the curiosity of men. For the Guaraní, one of the most representative indigenous ethnic groups of the Americas, the Moon was a goddess called Jaci, protector of:

  • Plants
  • Lovers
  • Reproduction

Mythologically, Jaci is identified with:

  • Diana of the Romans
  • Xochiquetzal of the Aztecs
  • Chandra of the Hindus
  • Isis of the ancient Egyptians

The Mayan civilization, a pre-Columbian people from Central America who had their heyday during the period from 250 AD to 900 AD, also related the Moon to femininity and fertility. They had advanced knowledge in astronomy and mathematics and mapped the Moon’s motion with extreme accuracy.

In our recent history, we have sent astronauts to the Moon to study it further. With all this admiration throughout human history, we are led to wonder: how did the Moon come about? Several theories have emerged about it.

Co-Accretion Theory

Proposes that the Moon formed around the Earth early in the formation of our solar system. After the formation of the Earth, there would have been material left over. The left over matterial gravitated around it and, over time, eventually clumped together to form the Moon. The justification to validate this idea is that the satellite and our planet have some characteristics in common, such as the age of the rocks on both surfaces. However, there are significant differences that remain unexplained, such as the lower amount of iron found in lunar soil.

Capture Theory

It proposes that the Moon would have formed far from Earth. But would have been captured by the gravitational pull of our planet as it passed close to it. However, calculations show that such capture by Earth’s gravitational pull is practically impossible for an object as large as the Moon.

Fission Theory of The Formation of the Moon

According to this theory, the Moon and the Earth were initially one body. Our satellite would have become detached from the Earth while still red-hot. Also, the Earth would have begun to spin around itself, much faster than it does today. The theory claims that the Pacific Ocean region corresponds to the piece that formed the Moon. The idea is not widely accepted because the oceanic space would not be enough to make up a large rock the size of the Moon. And if the Moon had really separated from the Earth, its orbit would have been different.

Giant-impact hypothesis

The main theory of the Moon’s formation dates back to 1975. This theory considers that a celestial body the size of Mars, called Theia, collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago, when our planet was still forming and was a big hot gooey ball. A piece of the globe would have broken off and formed the Moon.

There are also variations of the theory, which consider that various debris from this collision accumulated around the Earth and, over time, due to gravitational forces, came together and eventually formed the Moon.

This primordial Moon was very different from our current satellite, as it was still in a state of fusion. The moon formed of unsolidified magma, which, over time, was crystallizing. The Moon also rotated much faster than it does today. However, due to the gravitational interaction of the Earth-Moon system, its rotation speed decreased to the point that they became equal. Maintaining the same side of the Moon towards our planet. This is why we always see the same side of our natural satellite.

Multiple collisions theory

Proposes that instead of a single colossal collision, a series of impacts created miniature moons largely from Earth material. These mini moons merged over time to form one large moon.

That’s the latest hypothesis, from a study published in 2017 in the scientific journal Nature Geoscience.

Rufu, R., Aharonson, O. & Perets, H. A multiple-impact origin for the Moon. Nature Geosci 10, 89–94 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2866

What Would Happen If the Moon Was Gone?

Video: What Would Happen If The Moon Disappeared?

Without the Moon, No Reliable Seasons

Without the moon, we would have no reliable seasons. Because the moon stabilizes the Earth’s axis. If it did not exist, the Earth’s axis would rotate every few million years. With devastating effects on the climate. The researchers did the calculations: Without the moon, the Earth’s axis could tilt almost 90 degrees from time to time. Then the North Pole could very quickly be in the tropics. This would mean: Each half of the Earth would have six months of blazing sun followed by six months of cold, dark night. The moon, on the other hand, holds the Earth’s axis reasonably in position, so such extreme conditions cannot occur.

Important Role in Evolution

Without the moon, the continents might still be lifeless and all life would take place in the sea. This is because the moon brings us high and low tides, and so also the coastal floodplains at the transition between water and land. Large areas that flood twice a day and dry up in between. These transition areas played an important role in evolution: this is where amphibians developed, which then drifted further and further onto the land and from which lizards, dinosaurs and mammals eventually evolved. Without the moon, the tides would be much weaker and all those flood plains would not have existed in the form they do.

Without the Moon, Days Would Be Shorter

Today, it takes the Earth 24 hours to rotate once around itself. In the early days of the Earth, it spun four times faster. Thus, a day lasted only six hours. It was the moon that slowed down the speed of the earth: Through the tides it drives, through the ebb and flow and all this sliding back and forth on the earth, the earth constantly loses rotational energy and as a result spins slower and slower.

Without the moon, it would not only be dark at night, but pitch black every night. Only the stars could still light our way.

Without the moon, the earth would become lonelier – therefore, without a companion. The sad part of the story is that the moon is moving away from us: every year it moves 4 cm further out into space. One day, in the distant future, it will be so far away that there will no longer be a total lunar eclipse. So, could earth survive without the moon?

When Will the Next Lunar Eclipse Be?

Find out when the next lunar eclipse will be and the places in the world from where you can see it.


How does a lunar eclipse occur? 

A lunar eclipse is produced by the passage of a planetary satellite, in this case, the Moon, and the shadow projected by the Earth. When this happens, the light reflected from the Moon is interrupted, momentarily obscuring the presence of Earth’s only satellite. Basically, the Earth is located between the Sun and the Moon, blocking the sun’s rays that reach the Moon. This cone of shadow of the Earth on the Moon causes its appearance to darken.

All types of lunar eclipses can only occur in the full moon phase but, because the lunar orbit is inclined with respect to the ecliptic plane, we do not have an eclipse every month when the full moon occurs. Lunar eclipses can be observed from wide areas of the planet, as long as the Moon is above the horizon.

Usually the disappearance of the Moon is not complete; we see the disk illuminated by the light scattered by the earth’s atmosphere with a reddish halo, which gives it a beauty rarely seen. Penumbral eclipses, for example, occur when the Moon enters the penumbra that the Earth produces. 

Recent notable lunar eclipses

A lunar penumbral eclipse that took place in 2017, could be seen in America, Europe, Africa and Asia, but not in other regions of the planet such as Hawaii, Antarctica, South Korea, Japan and Australia. 

The Earth, the Sun and the Moon must be in a straight line or very close to that position and in opposition (full moon), to fully or partially enter the Earth’s shadow.

On August 7, 2017, another lunar eclipse took place. In this case it was partial and it was the last we could see in 2017. Later we waited until 2018 to see a truly spectacular event. It was January 31, 2018 and we were able to enjoy a fantastic total lunar eclipse. Then, on July 27, 2018, another total lunar eclipse took place.

It was a very special day for lovers of astronomical observation, since apart from the total lunar eclipse, the longest of the 21st century, it also coincided with the opposition of Mars. We do need a telescope to observe Mars. To observe it, we just have to look up and look for the slightly reddish “star” in the night sky.

The next total lunar eclipse took place on January 21, 2019 and was visible from Africa, North and South America, and Europe.

In 2020 we had a penumbral lunar eclipse on November 30, 2020, where the Moon passed from right to left through the shadow of our planet.

For the next one, we will have to wait for the year 2021, so we better not miss the opportunity!

Lunar eclipses of 2021

Eclipse DateEclipse TypeEclipse DurationEclipse Visibility
May 26, 2021Total03h07mEast Asia, Australia, Pacific, Americas
November 19, 2021Partial03h28mAmericas, North Europe, East Asia, Australia, Pacific
2021 – Solar and Lunar Eclipses Worldwide. Source: NASA Eclipse.

On May 26, 2021, we will be able to enjoy a total lunar eclipse that will represent the first of the two lunar eclipses that will take place throughout 2021. To catch a glimpse of another total lunar eclipse, we will have to be patient and wait until May 16, 2022. On November 19, 2021 the next lunar eclipse will take place. However, in this case, it will not be total but partial.

How Long Would a Person Survive on the Moon Without a Spacesuit?

Not that such a thing could ever happen, but what if an astronaut does indeed find himself naked outside the spaceship? – The good news is that he won’t swell up until he explodes, as is commonly thought after watching some science fiction movies.

VIDEO: What If You Spend Just 30 Seconds on the Moon Without a Spacesuit?

What if you didn’t wear a spacesuit in space?

Let’s start with the fact that in space, there is no air pressure to envelop the body like on Earth.

In the absence of air pressure, anything that can get out of the astronaut’s body will escape immediately. Air in the lungs, for example, will be immediately expelled through the mouth and nose.

And if he forgot to go to the bathroom before jumping out of the spaceship, then …. It’s not pleasant to admit, but your insides are also immediately emptied. At least he doesn’t smell it, because he can’t breathe.

Also, we wouldn’t advise an astronaut without a spacesuit to hold his breath like we’re used to doing underwater.

Why? Because in the dreaded battle between the lungs that enclose the air and the vacuum of outer space… the vacuum will win. That is, the lungs will swell from within and burst.

Search and rescue in space

Surprisingly, you can save an astronaut who is ejected into space if you do it very quickly.

Although he will lose consciousness within 15 seconds, it can be said from the experiments conducted by scientists in an environment devoid of atmospheric pressure that the poor astronaut will most likely survive if he is picked up in the spacecraft within one and a half to three minutes.

The body of Jim LeBlanc was exposed to a vacuum during an experiment due to a malfunction in his spacesuit. As he recounts, just before he lost consciousness, saliva began bubbling in his mouth, which also happened to the blood in his arteries due to the lack of air pressure. But within 25 seconds, the experiment team was able to save him. 

In space, he probably had to wait a little longer. And as body fluids evaporate, the body begins to swell. It might even swell to twice its original size. But it wouldn’t explode. 

Of course, that’s very little consolation, considering that his body will float forever in space.

What Is a Blue Moon? Is a Blue Moon Actually Blue?

The term Blue Moon, actually has nothing to do with the color of the moon. It is nothing more than the succession of two full moons within the same calendar month, something that happens approximately every three years.

Two full moons are possible in the same month due to the fact that the full moon cycle is approximately every 29.5 days. Therefore, if the full moon occurs on the first or second day of that month, there is a probability that a second full moon will appear at the end of the month. This full moon is commonly known as the blue moon.

Does the moon appear blue? As opposed to Blood Moon when it appears red, it does not. For the moon to appear blue, it must be clouded by ash and smoke. For example, in 1883 the eruption of the Krakatoa volcano in Indonesia caused its ashes to spread to the limits of the atmosphere. Ash clouds scatter red light but allow other colors to pass through. For that reason, the moon appears to be blue during ash falls caused by volcanoes for example.

Types of Blue Moon

There are actually two types of blue moon. The most easy-to-understand type occurred on 31 October 2020, while the other type is much rarer. 

  1. Monthly Blue Moon: is the second full moon in a calendar month that contains two full moons.
  2. Seasonal Blue Moon: Third full moon in an astronomical season that contains four full moons.

The Next Blue Moons:

The most recent Blue Moon took place on 31st October 2020. A monthly Blue Moon occurs approximately every 3 years:

  • March 2023
  • May 2026
  • December 2028
  • September 2031

What Is the Origin of the Term “Blue Moon”?

The notion of a Blue Moon first appeared in 16th century writings of Thomas Wolsey, an English archbishop, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. Cardinal Wolsey wrote that his intellectual enemies “would have you believe that the moon is blue”. Apart from the occasional blue-tinged moon that can appear through a cloud of volcanic ash, the moon almost always appears in shades of white to yellow. Thus, the term Blue Moon is a kind of metaphor for absurdity or impossibility. In 19th-century London the term Blue Moon was used as street slang for “a long time”. Although it had probably been in use for a while, the slang first appeared in print in an 1821 book about working-class London.

No one knows why the term blue moon became associated with rare lunar events. However, the association most likely originated in the state of Maine. Since each season is three months long, seasons typically have three full moons. However, once in a few years, the dates align in such a way that a season will have four full moons. Farmers’ Almanac published in Maine coined the term Blue Moon for the third full moon in a season with four full moons.


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