So, which jet is capable of prevailing in a full-fledged fighter jet battle? To find out, watch today’s incredible video – United States F-35 vs. Russian Sukhoi Su-57 – Which Would Win? United States F-35 vs Russian Sukhoi Su-57 The United States military has a fantastic fighter jet in, the F-35, but is it stealthy … Continue reading United States F-35 vs Russian Sukhoi Su-57 – Which Would Win?→
The F-35 Lightning II is a truly remarkable and eye-catching piece of futuristic equipment. With modern avionics and electronics, stealth capabilities, and superb weaponry, it raises the quality bar and establishes high standards for modern aircraft. The F-35 Will this $400 billion plane be able to turn the tide and provide NATO countries with security? … Continue reading The F-35 Jet – NATO’s Super-Weapon→
War in Ukraine | Latest updates on the war in Ukraine. Vladimir Putin, the president of Russia, has vowed to defend Russian territory with any means necessary, including nuclear weapons. He is currently preparing to annex sizable portions of the occupied Ukrainian territory.
What would occur if Russia detonated a nuclear weapon in Ukraine.
RUSSIA-UKRAINE WAR LATEST NEWS TODAY – The UN secretary-general has stated that Russia’s plans to annex four Ukrainian regions will represent a “dangerous escalation” of the Ukraine war, which will have a negative impact on prospects for peace in the country.
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Following Ukraine’s gains, thousands of Russian troops pulled back, leaving behind ammunition and equipment, but Russia still controls around a fifth of the country.
They have responded to Ukrainian battlefield successes by shelling power stations and other key infrastructure, causing blackouts in Kharkiv.
The counter-offensive happened, and the Ukrainian forces liberated the Kharkiv region. The Russians escaped being encircled in those cities, but they did withdraw hastily, and it was a humiliating defeat for Russia.
Although the Nuclear War Base designed to save the nation may seem like a relic of the past, it is still an important part of British history. Today, the base serves as a reminder of the Cold War and Britain’s role in it.
Visitors can tour the facility and learn about its significance in protecting the nation during a time of great turmoil. The Nuclear War Base is an essential part of understanding British history and should be preserved for future generations.
In the article, we delve into the deep, dark world of Britain’s top-secret nuclear war base designed to save the UK from nuclear attack.
Britain’s top-secret nuclear war base is designed to save the country in the event of a nuclear attack.
The massive facility, located deep underground, is equipped with everything needed to sustain life for a long period of time.
It has its own water and power supply, as well as food and medical supplies.
The base also has its own communications system so that the government can continue to function even in the midst of a nuclear war.
There are a number of nuclear bunkers in the UK, though their exact locations are kept secret.
These bunkers are designed to protect the government and key personnel in the event of a nuclear attack.
They are fully stocked with supplies and have enough space to accommodate everyone who needs to take shelter.
There are also smaller fallout shelters scattered throughout the country that can provide protection for ordinary citizens.
During the Cold War, the UK government constructed a number of nuclear bunkers to provide shelter for the population in case of nuclear war.
These bunkers were designed to be highly resistant to radiation and provide a safe environment for people to wait out the fallout from a nuclear attack.
Today, many of these bunkers have been converted into museums or other public facilities. They still serve as a reminder of the threat of nuclear war.
There was a lot of tension between the US and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Both countries were equipped with nuclear weapons, and the fear of nuclear war was pervasive.
In an effort to prepare for the worst, both countries built nuclear bunkers. These bunkers were designed to protect the population in the event of a nuclear attack. The United Kingdom’s fallout shelter was located in the countryside and could hold up to 4,000 people.
Fortunately, the Cold War ended before the bunker was ever needed.
The ancient forests were full of life, including dinosaurs, insects, reptiles, amphibians, and tiny mammals that scurried through the undergrowth. When a tree was damaged or attacked, it secreted a viscous sticky substance called resin.
[02:08] The organic material in coal turns to coal tar, which traps the remnants of tree resin. The copal then fossilizes into amber, which preserves the creatures entombed within, giving paleontologists a window back in time.
[04:00] Amber preserves fossil remains, and when you look at some of the specimens, they actually look like they died yesterday. This allows paleontologists to study the finest details of the morphologies of the animals, plants, and microorganisms preserved in amber.
[05:28] The way we find amber in Australia is a little different to how we find amber around the world. In Australia we find amber in cold deposits, but in the Baltic Sea and the Dominican Republic we find amber eroded out over thousands of years.
[07:03] Most of the amber that was originally found in Australia was found just on the beaches as float. However, a bunch of researchers from Monash found some amber rich coal in Anglesey.
Can fossils of dinosaurs be found in amber?
[08:05] We’ve been working on these fossils for a couple of years now, but the coal mine was about to shut down. We got diggers to take out a huge bunch of coal and take it here, but we only got a small amount of amber.
[09:03] When we first prepare the amber out, we scratch away at the coal surrounding the amber with hand tools to try and get the amber out. We only focus on the big pieces of amber because they’re worth getting out.
[10:01] In the angular deposit, we get several kinds of amber. We want to get clear amber that is either green or orange that has inclusions in it.
[11:02] We don’t really know why the green amber has more stuff in it, but we do know that it was a tastier tree.
[12:23] Once we have a collection of amber from a piece of coal, we paint it with water to clear it up and look for bio inclusions. Sometimes we find something that looks like a mite or nematode.
[13:15] If we can’t see anything in the amber, we use X-rays to create a 3d model of the amber, and then researchers can look through it and write papers on the bio inclusions that we find.
[13:56] To look into the amber, we’ve got to clean off all the excess coal, wash it with water, and temporarily remove the distortions with Cedarwood Oil.
[14:41] When people look through a microscope, they can see details of 100 million year old creatures. They can also see insects and plant remains, and can embed the remains in resin to protect them.
What did the Earth look like during the Jurassic period?
[15:51] The first time I polished anything, I polished away half of a flyaway, which was a mistake, but we could image the other half.
[16:37] There we go, a few mites, nematodes, bits of moss, and maybe some fly legs. These are the really small things that we’re talking about, but they’re exciting because they’re 40 to 42 million years old.
[17:16] My specialties are plants and geology, and I really enjoy working with amber, which is a plant resin. Miners have been mining amber in Northern Myanmar for over 2 000 years, and the amber represents a terrestrial ecosystem that’s about 99 million years old.
[19:42] So the tree gives us a glimpse into a tropical environment 99 to 100 million years ago. It produced a lot of resin and sometimes something absolutely extraordinary was found.
[20:36] We’ve found a dinosaur wing in the Burmite, and we’re trying to reconstruct what type of dinosaur it was by studying the feathers and tissue bones.
[21:34] Within a piece of amber from Myanmar, scientists have found feathers from a dinosaur wingtip. The feathers are similar to modern bird feathers, but lack some distinguishing features that would allow us to determine that the dinosaur is a modern bird.
[22:44] We want to understand the evolutionary history of feathers by analyzing the feathers of this specimen. This will help us understand how modern environments would react to climate change or other disruptions in evolutionary processes.
[23:31] They have found specimens with quite vibrant coloration, which suggests that dinosaurs had vibrant colors and creative patterns even 99 million years ago. Through synchrotron scanning, it might be possible to identify the species and determine the species age.
Why are so many fossils in amber?
[24:40] Paleontology has advanced so much in terms of imaging that we can use several techniques to study fossils, including Leica microscopes, Bk imaging system, micro Ct scanning and advanced synchrotron radiation.
[27:10] When you’re holding a fossil, you can use advanced chemical techniques to look at the elemental composition of the fossil to see if there’s anything preserved.
[28:06] Raman spectroscopy is a technique to study molecular bonds in our sample by scattering light on the sample. The scattered radiation has the same energy as the incident beam, plus or minus the energy of the bonds present in our sample.
[29:24] There’s still something going on with amber fakes, and you can test for fakes by looking at the specimens associated with the piece, and by looking for organic debris in the piece.
[30:26] Amber has no inclusions, froth, or little bubbles, and fluoresces a brilliant blue in the ultraviolet light. It also melts at 200 to 250 degrees centigrade and is used in varnishes and medicines.
[31:25] The inclusions in the resin are reconstituted, and the finest trichomes are gone if the resin is reheated.
[31:49] There are lots of different techniques paleontologists can use to confirm a fossil, but usually a paleontologist with lots of experience can look at a specimen straight away and say okay, this is this is not right or sure you know this looks right to me.
[33:08] Paleontologists are finding many different types of animals and plants in burmite from Myanmar, which is 100 million years old. These fossils are giving them clues as to what kinds of organisms lived in this ancient tropical forest.
[34:26] In order to date coal, we look at the surrounding coal, the surrounding coal’s stratigraphic seconds, and then we look for other fossils within the coal, such as insects, plant remains, and pollen. We can use the pollen to narrow down the age of coal.
[36:57] Paleontologists have found a fossil of two flies mating, which is 42 to 40 million years old, in the Alcoa Mine in Australia. It’s the only fossil ever found in Australia that actually shows sexual population happening or mating.
[38:13] Paleontologists are trying to learn more about the cretaceous ecosystem in Myanmar from the Amber. It was a tropical environment, with higher Co2 levels and temperatures.
[39:27] Paleontologists study ancient ecosystems to understand where we came from and how we’ve evolved over time. They focus on deposits that capture all these ancient remains as much as they can.
[40:32] Amber is very useful to study the terrestrial environments of ancient organisms, and ant fossils in Australia are giving us insight into ant evolution for the first time.
[41:21] The monomorium ant has lived in Australia for at least 40 million years, and its fossils are preserved in amber. It’s a fascinating thing to see the actual part of the animal that existed a hundred million years ago.
My grandfather was a fighter pilot who flew the F4u Corsair in World War two. He was awarded many medals and I wanted to be a fighter pilot like him.
[01:54] – A young guy at a flight school flying the most powerful fighter ever built was nervous about his first red flag exercise.
[04:21] – They call it red flag. We are gathered here today with pilots and crews from around the world to demonstrate the best fighter aircraft in the world.
[05:25] – The first morning of Red Flag, the Nellis flight line prepares to launch an enormous international armada of aircraft. It will include 22 F-15 eagles, eight German tornadoes, and the multi-role F-18 Hornet.
[08:40] – Red Flag provides pilots with their first 10 combat missions, which are more challenging than war itself.
[09:17] – The ghostly B2 heavy bomber floats toward the battlefield, followed by stealth F-117s and a U2 sending intelligence to the A-wax surveillance aircraft. The A-wax crew uses inputs from space systems and radar to understand the battle situation.
[10:36] – The bad guys fly 12 highly maneuverable F-16s, and Tractor is the Red Forces mission commander. He’s prepared them for the real thing, but Red Flag is their first taste of an air battle on a massive scale.
[12:03] – As planes are hit and declared dead, they turn white on the nexus screen, and the good guys must disengage and return to base. The aggressors get to regenerate and return to the fight.
Top Gun Operation Red Flag
[15:40] – Red Flag is not a contest or a competition. The commanders walk a fine line in order to save lives, and eight people nearly lost their lives today due to a pilot’s failure to communicate a change in flight path.
[17:23] – Surface-to-air missiles fired from every conceivable platform have proliferated by the millions worldwide. The threat center, which is equipped entirely with enemy weapons, is based on the same principle used in science museums.
[18:34] – A pilot and his gunner search for pebbles blown onto the runway by the desert wind at 5am each day. They are flying 600 miles per hour under the radar, hugging the rocks.
[20:18] – An F-15 squadron searches for potential targets in enemy territory. The pilot in front must lose ground quickly in order to get behind the aggressor, and must also watch their back sound.
The difference between Red Flag and Top Gun
[25:01] – Pilots are often required to refuel their aircraft simply to make it back to base, and if they can’t take on fuel in real combat, they risk being captured. Refueling is one of the most challenging skills to master.
[27:25] – My grandfather told me stories about the machine gun that jammed the gas tank, about the parachutes they didn’t always have time to put on, and about the young enemy pilots.
[29:13] – A F-15s engine takes 22 hours to make, and the mechanics and ground crews must work even harder during combat.
[29:47] – Today is the halfway point at Red Flag, and the mission today is not planned. The enemy is doing everything they can to capture the pilot, and you have nothing except what you would normally carry in the aircraft’s ejection seat.
[32:40] – The air boss calls in slow-flying A-10s to eliminate enemy choppers that are moving in to pick up the downed pilot. The search and rescue team is prepared to risk their lives for someone they don’t even know.
[35:46] – Aircrews have died on the runway, while bringing their battle-damaged aircraft home. The Red Flag aircrews are trained to perform as would be expected in a combat environment, but must work quickly and with great care.
[38:51] – The enemy is bringing everything forward that they can to fortify their frontline forces. We will give them everything we’ve got.
[39:17] – The vast majority of flights are undertaken by transport and tanker aircraft. Flight Roger experienced his first live orders at Red Flag.
[42:39] – I thought Red Flag was a chance to prove myself, but it became more about pulling off a good mission and becoming part of something bigger than myself. I made friends with pilots and crews from all over the states and around the world.
How many multiverses are there? The universe we can observe is not unique, but there are billions of others. In other words, the universe would be part of a larger “multiverse.” As a result, some well-known scientists have spoken of a super-Copernican revolution. According to this idea, not only is the Earth just one planet among many, but the universe itself is insignificant on a cosmic scale, one among countless other universes governed by their own laws.
The term multiverse has several meanings. We can explore the space surrounding us to a distance of about 42 billion light-years, which is the distance light has traveled since the Big Bang if cosmic expansion is taken into account.
However, there is no reason to assume that the universe ends at this cosmological horizon. It could continue indefinitely beyond that, through a succession of zones similar to our observable region. The distribution of matter would differ from one region to the next, but the physical laws would be identical.
Almost all cosmologists accept this multiverse view as a collection of similar regions. Max Tegmark, a cosmologist from Sweden, has called it a “level 1 multiverse.”
An infinity of different universes
Some go even further. They imagine an infinity of different universes, subject to different physical laws, with different histories, and even spaces that do not have the same number of dimensions. Most would be barren, but some would be teeming with life. One of the main proponents of this “Stage 2” multiverse is the Russian cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin, who paints a dramatic picture of an infinite set of universes containing an infinite number of galaxies, an infinite number of planets, and an infinite number of people who are your doubles reading this article.
Such representations are not new and are found in many cultures throughout history. What is new is the idea that the multiverse is a scientific theory, with all that implies in terms of logical rigor and confrontation with experience. This idea makes me skeptical. I do not believe that the existence of these other universes has been or can ever be proven. In my opinion, the proponents of the multiverse not only expand our understanding of physical reality but implicitly redefine what is meant by “science”.
Proponents of the stage 2 multiverse hypothesis have no shortage of ideas to explain or highlight this proliferation of universes. These universes could, for example, be in very distant regions of space that have not expanded at the same rate as ours, as predicted by the perpetual inflation model of Alan Guth, Andrei Linda, and others. These universes could have existed before ours, as suggested by the cyclic model of Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok. Or they could exist in parallel, as other realizations of the quantum states of the universe, as David Deutsch and Michael Lockwood argue. These universes could also be completely decoupled from our spacetime, as suggested by Mr. Tegmark and Dennis Sciama.
Google founder Larry Page, tech billionaire Elon Musk, terraplanists, ufologists. Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla doesn’t have an eclectic fan base by accident. The same scientist who changed the way people use and distribute electricity had pigeons as pets, was a germaphobe, and believed he was receiving signals from Mars.
His eccentric personality and a story full of ups and downs – he frequented New York high society in the late 19th century, lived in luxury hotels like the New Yorker and the Waldorf Astoria, died poor, and spent years in obscurity – are so special that one of his best-known biographers is psychologist Marc Seifer. Tesla was his doctoral thesis. “I wanted to understand how his head worked”.
Inventions came in visions
Tesla was born in 1856 in Smiljan, in present-day Croatia, to ethnic Serbian parents.
Did Nikola Tesla have a degree? Yes, he studied electrical engineering at the University of Graz, in Austria (then still Austro-Hungarian Empire), and, at the age of 26, he moved to Paris to work at the American Thomas Edison’s company, Continental Edison Company.
Two years later he was transferred to the company’s headquarters in New York, with the function of “redesigning Edison’s machines”, as he tells in his autobiography, written when Tesla was 63 years old and published by the American magazine Electrical Experimenter.
In the book, he tells how, as a child, he had hallucinations, images accompanied by strong flashes of light, which were replaced by the very well-defined outlines of his inventions after he turned 17.
“I change the design, make improvements, and operate the equipment in my head. It makes no difference to me whether I test my turbine in my head or in the laboratory. When I visualize it, I can even tell if it is out of balance.
In one year, he perfected all 24 machines that the manager of the Edison Machine Works had presented to him and for which he had promised a $50,000 bonus if they were improved.
During this period, the young man worked 18.5 hours daily – from 10:30 to 5:00 the next day – only to discover, according to his autobiography, that the manager’s comment was a joke, which he had taken literally. Tesla resigned.
What is Nikola Tesla famous for?
One of his main discoveries, alternating current earned him a years-long dispute with Edison, who patented direct current.
Its operation and applications – Tesla’s turbine, the induction motor, and the high-voltage transformer – he conceived when he was still living in Paris. He tried to convince Edison to bet on the idea, but only after leaving the company was he able to put into practice what he had kept in his head for years.
To this end, he allied himself in the second half of the 1880s with George Westinghouse, owner of the Westinghouse Electric Company, which financed the project.
Direct current is the current that circulates, for example, in batteries, which flows constantly between the negative and positive poles. In alternating current, the poles are reversed all the time, and electricity flows in a zigzag pattern.
It sounds inefficient, but just the opposite, says Bernard Carlson, professor of the history of technology at the University of Virginia and author of Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age.
The innovation changed the concept of electricity and created the notion of power. “Until then, electricity was only used to light a lamp. The induction motor allowed buildings to have elevators, and houses to have electrical appliances,” he explains.
Tesla’s patented power distribution system, which used high-voltage transformers, made it possible for electricity to travel long distances, adds the biographer.
It was with this technology that, in 1895, Tesla and Westinghouse built the first modern hydroelectric power plant at Niagara Falls – the technology we use to this day.
“Before, generation sites needed to be close to consumer centers. Niagara changed that. It distributed to Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia… places hundreds of miles away,” points out Seifer, author of Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla.
The inauguration of the power plant is one of the chapters in the “war of the currents”, the dispute that lasted for years between Tesla and Edison – who did not believe in alternating currents and even campaigned against it.
In one such episode, in 1890, the businessman used his influence to use alternating current in the first-ever human execution in an electric chair. “He used to say that it was dangerous and wanted to use that situation to prove it,” says José Roberto Cardoso, professor of the department of electrical engineering at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo (USP).
The shot backfired. The executioners at Auburn prison in New York didn’t know how to manipulate the current and the voltage constantly dropped. After two minutes of an unpleasant spectacle, the room smelled of burning flesh and William Kemmler, the condemned man, was not yet dead. Some witnesses, however, were already passed out.
The showman of high society
Despite the controversies, the two inventors had a cordial rivalry, says Seifer. “Contrary to what many people think, they were not enemies. They exchanged letters for years.”
Tesla became eternalized as a scientist full of quirks. He himself recounts in his autobiography that he had an “aversion” to women’s earrings, disliked touching other people’s hair, counted his own steps, and calculated the volume of his soup plates and coffee cups.
For the psychologist, the weirdness masks his main characteristic. “Tesla was a ‘bon vivant’.
He circulated among the parties and dinners of New York’s high society and was close to personalities such as writer Mark Twain and billionaire John Jacob Astor, who allowed him to live for years in his luxurious Waldorf Astoria.
He had no girlfriends – he never married or had children – but he gathered a legion of friends with whom he exchanged letters, among them Katherine Johnson, wife of writer Robert Underwood Johnson, and Corinne Roosevelt, sister of President Roosevelt.
“A lot of people speculate whether Tesla was homosexual, but he exchanged gallant letters with these women,” Seifer says.
The scientist became a celebrity with pyrotechnic demonstrations of his inventions, Carlson adds. “He even ran 200,000 volts through his own body to show how his coil worked,” he points out, referring to one of the scenes he recounts in the book, an 1893 performance in a St. Louis theater in front of 4,000 people.
“He was a showman.
What is the problem with Nikola Tesla?
In 1901, Tesla began his most ambitious project, which he never achieved. With a $150,000 loan from banker John Pierpont Morgan, he bought a large plot of land on Long Island, built a laboratory, and erected a tower, named Wardenclyffe.
He wanted to discover a way to transmit electrical power wirelessly. His goal was that the whole world should have access to power, preferably free of charge. Tesla’s experiments in this area – which gave rise to the remote control, which he presented at Madison Square Garden controlling a small boat from a distance – were the first step in the creation of the technology that would give rise to wi-fi.
“The problem is that it is only possible to transmit low powers. The transmission of a higher power would produce high-intensity magnetic fields, dangerous for humans,” explains Cardoso, a professor at USP.
Tesla didn’t give up. He spent everything he had, and four years later, faced with failure, he had a nervous breakdown from which he never recovered.
“I have analyzed 40 years of Tesla’s handwriting. His writings from 1906 onwards clearly show that something happened,” says Seifer, who is also a graphologist.
The inventor died on January 7, 1943, in-suite 3327 of the New Yorker hotel on the 33rd floor – he had an obsession with the number 3 and its multiples. Poor, he spent his last years living in the hotel suite thanks to Westinghouse. “He had made a fortune from Tesla’s patents, who threatened to sue him if he didn’t help him.”
Wardenclyffe spent years abandoned until, in the early 1990s, a woman named Jane Alcorn found it when she was looking for a new space for the science club she coordinated at an area school.
“I lived a block away from the place and had never heard of Tesla. Little by little I discovered that he was one of those people who dreamed big,” she says. The inspiration made her spend the next 20 years trying to convince politicians and the local community that it was necessary to buy the space, to reclaim it.
In 2012, the Americans launched the first campaign to raise funds to launch the Tesla Science Center. In one year, crowdfunding received 33,000 contributions from 108 countries and raised $1.37 million.
Now, the president of the organization, Alcorn hopes that the space will be open for visitors as early as next year. The iconic tower no longer exists, but the outside of Tesla’s old laboratory is intact.
Elon Musk is also an Edison fan
Elon Musk donated $1 million to the initiative in 2014. He and his company, Tesla, are partly responsible for bringing the inventor back into the 21st century. “He had literally been erased from the history books,” says Seifer.
The curious thing is that Musk did not name the company. It was named in 2003 by its two founders – whom he joined shortly afterward -, who wanted to develop an electric car at more affordable prices from the induction motor created by Tesla.
The businessman has even said in interviews that although he admired the scientist, he considered Thomas Edison as one of his personal heroes, alongside Winston Churchill.
In addition to Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, Tesla attracts sympathy from more “esoteric” groups, in Seifer’s definition – fans of conspiracy theories, terraplaning organizations (those who defend that the Earth is flat), and ufologists.
For the biographer, the explanation for this comes from Tesla’s forays into the field of astrophysics. “He believed in extraterrestrials and that he received messages from Mars,” he says.
Tesla’s popularization, in general, has to do with the moment in which we live, Carlson assesses. “As a scholar of the history of technology I realize that in times of prosperity the heroes tend to be the realistic, practical entrepreneurs, the Henry Ford’s, the Thomas Edison’s. When things are harder people look to inventors, to visionaries, for inspiration.”
The story of human evolution is the story of our species acquiring dominance. This episode goes back over three million years to examine clues in the human genome that explain how humans evolved from being tree-dwelling apes to becoming the world’s most dominant primate.
We explore how genetics has underpinned human evolution, from our rise from primates on the African plains to our spread across the globe. This article asks how genetics can be even more influential in shaping future evolution. The amazing story of the human race is told through location film and state-of-the-art computer visualization.
The Pleistocene epoch is thought to be the time when humans began changing the global environment. This contributed to the mass extinction of megafauna, including giant kangaroos and mammoths on almost every continent. However, some date it to the advent of agriculture some 7,000 years ago.
It is clear from fossils that simple organisms dominated life on Earth for the first 3 billion years. The first multicellular organisms started showing up on Earth about a billion years ago. As time went on, life forms became increasingly complex. And last but not least, the Cambrian period brought more complexity and diversity to animals.
Documentary Film – First Complex Life
History of Earth’s Complex Life Forms
The history of life on Earth tells the story of the processes by which living organisms have evolved. This is from the origin of life on Earth some 4.4 billion years ago to the incredible diversity present in today’s organisms.
Additionally, global catastrophes, climatic changes, and the joining and separation of continents and oceans all affect their development.
The similarities between all present-day organisms indicate the existence of a universal common ancestor from which all known species have diverged through evolutionary processes.
Frequently asked questions
What is the most complex form of life?
The microscopic water flea (Daphnia pulex) is the most complex organism on Earth. It’s the first crustacean whose genome has ever been sequenced. What makes it so unusual? On average, it has about 31,000 genes compared to ours.
What were the first living cells?
3.7 billion years ago, microscopic organisms left traces of their presence in rocks. These signals are made of a type of carbon molecule produced by living things.
There’s also evidence of microbes in the dense structures they made (“stromatolites“). Some of these structures are 3.5 billion years old. Stromatolites are formed by microbes trapping sediment and binding it into layers.
As the microbes die, minerals precipitate inside the layers, forming durable structures. Earth’s earliest life forms can be better understood by studying today’s rare stromatolite reefs.
First living things were probably unicellular, prokaryotic, anaerobic, and possessed a simple structure. On the other hand, the most accepted hypothesis for eukaryotic cells is endosymbiosis.
This Space Documentary is about the life cycle of black holes. Dark centers of gravity that swallow everything in their path. What would you see if you got close? And fell past the point of no return. Into another world of twisted space and time. What secrets can we learn about the universe? On a journey to the center of a monster black hole.
In this space documentary they will talk about the following topics:
Which star’s life cycle could end in a black hole?
How does a black hole form
How does a black hole die
Lifespan of a black hole
Life cycle of a star
Who discovered black holes
Supermassive black hole
Event horizon black hole
The Life Cycle of Black Holes
A black hole is the most extreme manifestation of the universe. Matter and energy are so small that they are literally bursting out of the known universe. Scientists are beginning to think that this monster may have a strong influence on galaxies, the solar system, and space-time itself. With a new generation of high-tech laser systems and advanced telescopes in space, researchers are finally able to track the whereabouts of black holes.
Imagine traveling to the very center of our Galaxy. 26,000 light years away. And finding a vantage point on the night sky. You’d see millions of stars. And on the horizon a strange dark sphere rising. It’s a black hole. An object so dense nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light.
In nearly every large Galaxy, astronomers have found evidence of black holes, millions, even billions of times. The mass of the sun.
How did they form and get so large?
In the search for answers, we are beginning to glimpse at the forces that shape the stars, planets, even life. And now by tracing the life cycle of black holes, scientists are finding clues to the fate that awaits our Galaxy and the universe at large.
But how do you study something that, by nature evades, detection?
Sometimes the universe lets us in on its most mysterious workings. March 19th, 2008. Astronomers around the world receive an alert sent from an orbiting observatory called Swift. It had recorded a flash of gamma radiation, a kind of ultra high energy light that is the signature of a cataclysmic event. SWIFT automatically relayed the information down to Earth. And within seconds, robotic telescopes in North and South America turned their gaze on the rising light.
Meanwhile, at Giant observatories in Chile. And in Texas they zero in on it. Using specialized instruments to split the light into all its different wavelengths. That tells them how far the light had traveled to reach Earth. What they find is that it had come from seven and a half billion light years away. Halfway across the visible universe.
Other evidence from ground and space telescopes
Astronomers determined that the Flash was a narrow but intense beam of light, and that most likely it broadcast the birth of a black hole. This singular moment is the end point of a violent chain of events in the core of a large star.
By nature, black holes themselves do not emit any electromagnetic radiation other than hypothetical Hawking radiation, so astrophysicists looking for black holes generally must rely on indirect observations. For example, the existence of a black hole can sometimes be inferred by observing its gravitational influence on the environment around it.
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), run by MIT’s Haystack Observatory, is an active program that directly observes the immediate event horizon environment of black holes, such as the black hole at the center of the Milky Way.
Space Documentary 2021! It’s certainly been a good week if your passions include the history of space exploration. But there is more, much more: we offer you a selection of movies, series and documentaries that you can watch right now if you want to continue floating away from the earth’s atmosphere.
For decades, orbiters and small rovers have been searching for signs of life on Mars. Learn the latest about Curiosity, a car-sized rover on Mars with an impressive arsenal of science tools.
Cosmic Vistas’ fifth season delves into the solar system, revealing never-before-seen views of the sun, planets and distant worlds. Cutting-edge science and incredible imagery provide a fresh perspective on the universe.
I really enjoy watching these insightful documentaries about space and science.
I’ve always been fascinated by the Curiosity Rover and what it can tell us about our own evolution on Earth.
This guys (Spark) always do a great job of introducing stories, analyzing and presenting these ventures. I always learn something new when I watch this documentaries.
The film makers did a great job of showing these scientific marvels, such as the confirmation of the riverbed, which is a good confirmation of the existence of water at some point in Mars’ history. Therefore, there is the possibility of life (microbes?) there.
The detection of methane is one of the most important discoveries in the universe to date. Even if it is ultimately inconclusive.
Curiosity, the space mission to Mars
Curiosity is equipped with a Radiation Assessment Detector that counts:
and other particles
Its mission is to explore the radiation in the Mars environment, but researchers are also taking advantage of it to analyze the particles Curiosity encounters along the way.
With a pair of bulging eyes staring at you from nearly 8 meters high, its six wheels and more than 800 kilograms, Curiosity doesn’t look much like a human being.
Curiosity obtains its power through the radioactive decay of plutonium using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This power source gives it an operating life of at least one Martian year, which is equivalent to 687 Earth days.
Curiosity carries the latest technologies to obtain information about the:
and the potential presence of Martian microorganisms
It is equipped with:
two radiation detectors
two environmental and two atmospheric sensors
Curiosity confirmed that conditions for life existed on Mars. Perseverance will now take the next step and seek to answer one of the great questions of astrobiology: are there concrete signs of past microbial life on Mars?