Tag Archives: Albert Einstein

What is the deepest picture of the universe?

The latest Hubble discoveries are astonishing! Just look at this newly formed giant exoplanet from the constellation Auriga, which is nine times the mass of Jupiter. How about this breathtaking image of a head-on collision between two galaxies known collectively as Arp 143?

They passed through each other, causing a gigantic triangular firestorm with thousands of stars bursting into life. But the telescope could capture much bigger events. Its images changed astronomers’ view of many secrets of the cosmos. Hubble even became a time machine, allowing scientists to see into the past of our universe.

What other astonishing images did the telescope take? And how did a single image taken by Hubble change science once and for all?

How was the eXtreme Deep Field image captured? Hubble is acquiring a new target

Hubble telescope deep space image

To allow us to see deep space, the creators of the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] had to work hard. The need for an orbital observatory was discussed back in the seventies. Scientists wanted to get clearer images of deep space than those taken from Earth. Unfortunately, our atmosphere makes observations difficult by absorbing and distorting light. We’re going to show you some more incredible images, but first… a little quick history of Hubble.

In 1977, the U.S. Congress authorized the construction of a space telescope with the help of NASA. They decided to name it after the outstanding astronomer Edwin Hubble.

The most difficult thing was to make the huge observatory mirror. It was constructed of heat-resistant glass with incredibly thin but durable coatings – a layer of aluminum 65 [nm] nanometers thick protected with a magnesium fluoride layer 25 [nm] nanometers thick.

The entire space telescope turned out to be nearly the size of a school bus. Its primary mirror has a weight of 827 kilograms [1,825 lbs] and has a diameter of 2.4 meters [7.8 ft]. This mirror captures light from a space object and reflects it onto a secondary mirror 0.3 meters [12 inches] in diameter. This smaller mirror was placed in the optical tube.

It reflects light through a hole in the main mirror, forming an image in the telescope. From there it is sent to scientific instruments. At the time of Hubble’s launch, there were six such instruments. These are wide-angle and planetary cameras equipped with a set of 48 light filters to highlight light spectra. The wide-angle one has a large field of view, and the planetary one made it possible to greatly increase the observation points.

Another device, a high-resolution spectrograph, was designed to operate in the ultraviolet range. With its help, the telescope can see dim objects captured by a special camera. The High-Speed Photometer [HSP] can observe variable stars and other objects with varying brightness.

And the Fine Guidance Sensors [FGS] record changes in the position of the object. Scientific instruments were located in the tail section of the HST.

The Hubble Space Telescope is equipped with six gyroscopes, four reaction wheels, two main computers, two wing-like solar arrays, and four antennas. It consumes an average of 2,100 watts of power per day and orbits the Earth every 95 minutes.

Astronomers were thrilled for Hubble to be ready for the launch, but when the Space Shuttle Discovery took off with the telescope, the images were blurry. Spacewalking astronauts fixed the telescope during four servicing missions.

Hubble has been scanning the Universe for over 30 years, and scientists have transformed its images into color.

Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image

In 1995, astronomers used Hubble to study a piece of dark sky over the constellation Ursa Major. They found over 1,500 galaxies at various stages in their evolution, including some that were born during the infancy of our universe.

This is how the Hubble Deep Field was created. But it didn’t end there. In 2004, based on the first version, the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image was made, containing an estimated 10,000 galaxies. The snapshot contains galaxies of various ages, including the most distant red dim galaxies. Scientists believe they were born during the infancy of our universe when it was just about 800 million years old.

In 2012, astronomers unveiled the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, which was assembled by combining 10 years of the telescope’s data.

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is an image of a small area of space in the constellation Fornax, created using Hubble Space Telescope data from 2003 and 2004. It contains about 5,500 galaxies, including many faint galaxies that are one ten-billionth the brightness of what the human eye can see.

Hubble’s two premier cameras captured 2,000 images of the same field of sky over 50 days to create the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (XDF). The XDF allows scientists to explore further back in time than ever before.

Discoveries NASA made near the edge of the universe

The Hubble space telescope allows us to see deep into space, changing our understanding of astrophysics and shaping our knowledge of the universe.

In this post, we explore the most distant objects ever seen by the Hubble telescope.

Hubble Images: This is what NASA has discovered at the edge of the universe

The Butterfly Nebula is a 3800 light-year-distance galaxy. The glowing gas that was once a star’s outer layer has spread out into space, creating the wing-like shape you’re seeing now.

Pismis 24 is a star cluster 8000 light-years away, with blue stars in and around the core of the emission nebula. The stars are very hot, and their ultraviolet radiation causes the gas surrounding the star to heat and bubble around the star in remarkable clouds.

Pismis 24 is part of the diffuse nebula NGC 6357, a “cosmic nursery” with many proto-stars shrouded by dark gases.

Palomar 12 is a globular cluster of stars abducted from its home galaxy by tidal interactions with the Milky Way.

The Sombrero Galaxy is a flat, disk-like galaxy 30 million light-years away. It is notable for the blinding white core at its center and the distinct lanes of cosmic dust spiraling outwards, giving the galaxy its distinctive Sombrero Shape.

The galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 is a broad, elliptical galaxy, 65 million light-years from Earth. It is missing all of its dark matter and is possibly the first galaxy of its kind to display such an absence.

Earendel is a star in the Cetus constellation, 28 billion light-years away. It is expected to explode as a supernova in a few million years. It is suspected to be 50 to 100 times the size of our sun.

Hubble has shown us the distant galaxy HD1. The HD1 galaxy is 13.5 billion light-years away but is now 33.4 billion light-years away with the universe’s expansion taken into account.

The galaxy NGC 6770 is 33.4 billion light-years away and maybe a starburst galaxy producing stars at an unprecedented rate. It could also be home to enormous Population III stars that are far more luminous than the stars we are familiar with.

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What is the farthest star we can see

Hubble Space Telescope has exceeded all expectations. An individual star further out than any previously observed was detected by Hubble within the first billion years after the big bang.

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has detected a star (Earendel) 12.9 billion light years away. The farthest individual star ever seen to date. The star’s galaxy was magnified and distorted by gravitational lensing into a long crescent.

Astronomers studied a galaxy in detail and discovered a star that is at least 50 times the mass of our Sun and millions of times as bright as the most massive stars known.

Scientist’s FINALLY Discovered First-Ever White Hole

The first white hole has been found by astronomers. Black holes are terrifying massive objects lurking in deep space and swallowing anything that comes near. White holes are no less terrifying, but they come in various sizes.

It is a fact! Scientists have found the evidence after years of speculation and research. A white hole for the first time! But what is a white hole? And why are astronomers so excited about it?

What are Stars? A Short Introduction

Mysterious Facts about Black Holes

Space Documentary | The Life Cycle of Black Holes

The Yellow Sun Paradox

Journey to the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy

Stellar black holes can be up to 20 times greater than the sun’s mass, but are relatively small. They exert a powerful gravitational pull on other objects. Every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center.

Scientists think black holes formed in the early universe, after the Big Bang. Stellar black holes form when the center of a very massive star collapses in upon itself.

Scientists can see the effects of a black hole’s strong gravity on stars and gases around it. When a black hole and a star are orbiting close together, high energy light is produced.

The sun will not become a black hole, but it will die in billions of years. After that, it will become a red giant star, a planetary nebula, and then a cooling white dwarf star.

White holes are the exact opposite of black holes, and they are regions in which space-time flows inexorably outwards. If a crew attempts to enter a white hole, the sheer force of the gamma rays would destroy them and their ship.

The theory of white holes

The theory of white holes was discovered due to the mathematical fascination with black holes. Carl Schwarzschild used Einstein’s field equations to find the equation of mass in empty space-time, which is a mathematical representation of a black hole.

Schwarzschild created an equation for a black hole that does not change in size and has always existed. When reversing time, we get a white hole.

Some scientists doubt that white holes exist, claiming that while they obey general relativity and are mathematically sound, they violate the second law of thermodynamics. That small decrease in entropy can occur as long as the universe’s overall entropy is increasing.

Black holes are excellent at increasing the chaos of space, but white holes, which eject matter, violate this law. If black holes could no longer evaporate and shrink due to the constraints of space-time, they would transform into white holes.

Nasa’s Swift satellite detected a gamma-ray burst in 2006 that lasted for 102 seconds. However, it did not appear to be associated with any star explosion. Still, some years later, scientists introduced the hypothesis that Grb060614 could have been a white hole.

Is a Wormhole Scientifically Possible?

Scientists have long considered wormholes as a possible means of interstellar travel within human timescales. This video explains wormholes from the perspective of theoretical physicist Brian Greene:

Video: The American theoretical physicist, Brian Greene explains the science behind wormholes.


Wormholes are inherently unstable, making them an unsuitable method of traveling through space or time. For a wormhole to be stable, materials with negative energy density are required. Various quantum fluctuations in various fields might be able to do this, but classical matter cannot.

As Brian Greene explains, two black holes can also be connected via an Einstein Rosen Bridge or wormhole, as it’s more commonly known. Under certain conditions, space and time warp in varied ways, as predicted by General Relativity. The theory suggests that there are discrete areas of the universe where time and space are independent of one another.

Relative speeds faster than light is only impossible locally. Wormholes would allow faster-than-light travel since it would ensure the speed of light is never exceeded locally.

A wormhole permits travel at slower-than-light speeds. A wormhole that connects two points but has a shorter length than the distance between them outside the wormhole could take less time to traverse than a path through space outside the wormhole would. Even a light beam that travels through a wormhole would be faster than the traveler.

The existence of wormholes in the real world has yet to be proved, according to Brian Greene. The existence of wormholes in the real world can only be inferred through mathematics.

Einstein-Rosen Bridge

The possibility of traveling to other parts of the universe through wormholes is not far away. It remains to be seen if wormholes are real or just science fiction. For now, the only certainty is that scientists are still hard at work finding out more about them.

Do Einstein-Rosen bridges exist?: Wormholes (also known as Einstein-Rosen bridges or Einstein-Rosen wormholes) are hypothetical structures based on the Einstein field equations and supposed to link various points in spacetime.

What did Einstein say about wormholes?: In the theory of Einstein and Rosen, every black hole must be paired with a white hole. There would be a tunnel or wormhole, to connect the two holes since they would be in separate places in space.

Wormholes and time travel

Wormholes connect two points in space-time, which means that, in principle, they would allow travel in time and space. General relativity, however, dictates that it would not be possible to use a wormhole to travel to a time before the wormhole was converted into a time “machine.”

It would take us a lifetime to traverse the universe at light speed, but we might be able to do it in a single second via a wormhole, traversing unfathomable distances at once. Even though it sounds strange, it is not impossible in the distant future that people might use a wormhole to avoid major problems or even to save their lives.

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Albert Einstein and His Top Five Discoveries

Einstein is considered the greatest of theorists, alongside Isaac Newton, the father of classical mechanics. His name has become synonymous with genius.

To commemorate him, we have compiled this list of his main contributions to physics:

1. Brownian motion:
This discovery, made in 1905, explains how the thermal motion of individual atoms can form a fluid.

2. The photoelectric effect:
Also discovered in 1905, it explains the appearance of electric currents in certain materials, when they are illuminated by electromagnetic radiation.

3. Special relativity:
This is another contribution made in 1905. It shows that the speed of light is constant, while position and time depend on the speed of the body.

4. Mass-energy equivalence:
1905 was arguably one of his best years. Yes, the discovery of this equation (‘E=mc²’) also occurred in that year. It shows how a particle of mass has an energy at rest, different from kinetic and potential energy. It is used to explain how nuclear energy is produced.

5. General relativity:
Published between 1915 and 1916, it describes acceleration and gravity as different aspects of the same reality. This theory, one of the best known and most applauded, postulated the basis for the study of cosmology and the understanding of the essential characteristics of the universe.

Albert Einstein’s brain: do geniuses really exist?

When the popular physicist Albert Einstein died in 1955, the doctor who performed his autopsy removed his brain. He took pictures of the brain, already split in half. He measured it and weighed it. Albert Einstein’s brain weighed 1,230 grams, within the normal human range. Eventually, he dissected the brain into about 240 pieces and preserved it in celloidin. Then, he was secretly taking it to the different cities in the United States where he lived.

In the 1990s the doctor, Thomas Harvey, began to offer scientists around the world the possibility of studying Einstein’s brain. At that time, the Argentine researcher, Jorge A. Colombo, sent a letter to Harvey asking for some segments from Einstein’s brain. Harvey agreed to send them to the Conicet and CEMIC laboratories in Buenos Aires.

Based on the results of his research into Albert Einstein’s brain, Dr. Colombo reached the conclusion that the word “genius” should stop being used. According to Colombo, we must banish the word genius because all human beings have some talent. What happens is that not all of us are conditioned in the same way to express that talent.

Do geniuses exist?

Today it is known that expression of human intelligence depends on multiple factors. Inheritance, nutrition, upbringing, cognitive stimulation, and sociocultural environment to name just a few. All of these factors affect our brain which works as a series of complex networks of neurons and glias. Essentially, intelligence depends on the characteristics of each person and the society he lives in. Each society imposes certain rules, some of which can potentially stifle talents and extraordinary mental capacities.

According to Dr. Colombo, everyone has some kind of talent. Its expression, in turn, depends on the opportunities that society offers the individual. The most important thing is that the individual won’t suffer from inequality. According to Colombo, it is an “evolutionary crime” not to support those who come from a less favorable socioeconomic environment. Because the evolution of our species is closely associated with its level of inventiveness and creativity. 

Definition of genius

Oxford dictionary defines genius as an unusually great intelligence, skill, or artistic ability. But also as a person who is unusually intelligent or artistic, or who has a very high level of skill, especially in one area. The concept of ​​genius is a non-scientific construction. If a certain idea stands out, society regards it as genius. But there are many other talents in all areas of human endeavor that are being ignored due to social inequity on a global level.

How did Albert Einstein die?

It was April 18, 1955, when Einstein died. At the age of 76 he succumbed to internal bleeding at Princeton Hospital. An aneurysm that had literally given him stomach ache for a long time had ruptured. As Einstein wanted, his body was cremated and the ashes scattered in an unknown location. The eyes and the brain of the genius, however, went other ways: they were stolen. During Einstein’s autopsy Dr. Harvey removed his brain and later sectioned it into about 240 blocks. Much later, in the 1990s, different scientists tried to find a kind of marker in his brain that could be associated with his genius. 

Is there something extraordinary about Albert Einstein’s brain?

Einstein made great contributions to physics. However, we should be careful when making the inference that he was far more intelligent than many other scientists of his time. The trend to preserve the brains of political leaders, writers, and scientists began in the 19th century. To understand genius, researchers were looking for clues in the shapes and structures of the brains of notable people. To this end, brain banks were built in France, Russia, the United States, among other countries. But the results of their research were questioned because it was based on preconceptions, without evidence. 

At the time, researchers assumed that a person’s genius or talent had an anatomical marker. This prejudice was due to the misconceptions about brain function that prevailed in the 19th century. It was still influenced by localization theories such as that supported by Francis Gall, who is considered the founder of the pseudoscience of phrenology. Nevertheless, Gall’s assumption that personality traits, thoughts, and emotions are located in specific areas of the brain is considered an important milestone toward neuropsychology. However, at the time neurosciences had not yet received the seminal contributions of Sherrington, Ramón y Cajal, Camillo Golgi and other pioneers.

What distinctive characteristics did the researchers find?

One study compared Albert Einstein’s brain with 11 brains of individuals with normal intelligence. Researchers had found more glial cells relative to neurons in all areas studied. However, the difference was statistically significant in only the left inferior parietal area.

Other studies found an increased parietal lobe volume, an increase in astrocytes, and thinned cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. All of these studies, however, have been questioned. Their main limitation is the attempt to extract causal relationships of complex processes with structural observations of a particular, aged, formalin-fixed brain. 

Jorge Colombo’s research

Colombo’s team was studying a type of cell that is unique in the brain of primates, the so-called interlaminar glia. They wanted to know what was happening to that special glia in an intellectually intensive brain like Einstein’s. However, they already knew that some observed variations might not be specific to Einstein, but rather a consequence of changes associated with aging. In 1997, they ordered samples of Einstein’s brain from Dr. Harvey.

He agreed to send them to Argentina. The team had high expectations at the time. One of the works was done in collaboration with a laboratory in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. Researchers found that the terminal masses of the interlaminar glial cell in Einstein’s brain had a particular thickening. But that kind of thickening is also found in the brains of people who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers still do not know for sure whether this thickening is the product of a degenerative process. Or maybe it is linked to a particular functional aspect of the brain.

Einstein’s theory of relativity was not formulated from scratch, but is based on knowledge contributed by other scientists. No one denies Einstein’s talent, but neither should we obscure the contributions of previous scientists. Perhaps a phrase attributed to Einstein himself sums it all up: “Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”

What eventually happened to Einstein’s brain?

After 42 years, the thought organ of the respected physicist finally ended up in pathology at Princeton – with Harvey’s successor. Thomas Harvey died ten years later, in 2007. In 2010, his heirs donated what was left of Einstein’s brain to the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Chicago. 14 photos of the intact, not yet dismantled brain, which no one except Harvey had seen, were also found and transferred to the museum. Later, the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia also bought a few pieces of Einstein’s brain – cut into slices and pulled onto slides. They have been on view in the permanent exhibition there since 2013.

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What is The Theory of Relativity?

You have of course already heard of the theory of relativity, but did you understand it? We explain briefly and simply what Einstein’s theory is. Basically, it is about the structure of space, time and the nature of gravity.

Whoever reads this is (almost) as smart as Einstein

Albert Einstein. He still sticks his tongue out at us because he thinks he understands something we don’t. Namely, his theory of relativity. It is composed of two theories:

  • Special theory of relativity (1905) – explains the behavior of time and space from the perspective of observers.
  • General theory of relativity (1916) – describes gravity as the curvature of time and space, which is created, for example, by large masses such as stars.

First of all: everything is relative

This also applies to space and time. We already know that the earth, similar to other planets, is racing through space at ridiculous speeds: the earth rotates on its axis, at nearly 1700 km/hr. We here on our planet get nothing of it. Because we are in an inertial system.

In physics, inertial frame of reference is required to describe location-dependent processes exactly. An inertial system is a reference system in which force-free particles rest or traverse straight paths at constant speed. For example, time passes more slowly in one inertial system than in another.

  • According to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, all inertial systems are equal in nature. If time passes faster in one system than in another, both properties apply. Time travels faster and at the same time at a normal phase.
  • However, one must note that no system, object or particle can be faster than light. At 299,792,458 km/s, the speed of light is an upper limit for speeds.

In such a system that moves at constant speed, physical laws always have the same shape. For example, on the train. You sit and walk through the compartment as if the train is standing still as long as its speed is constant. If you look out of the window, subjectively seen, the world races past you, not you yourself at the world. So it always depends on the reference point of the observer. Therefore, you cannot specify absolute speeds and positions.

The theory of relativity and the speed of light

This aspect of the special theory of relativity is pretty unspectacular at first. But now comes the blast: light, according to Einstein, always moves at the same speed. Nothing relative about it. Before Einstein it was already clear: light consists of waves, not particles. The same applies to sound waves that need a medium (air) to transport them. They don’t get any further in a vacuum.

At the time the theory of relatively was published, researchers assumed that the same applies to light waves. But the universe seemed to be completely empty. That is why it was thought that it was filled with invisible ether on which light waves travel, like sound waves in the air. The physicist Albert A. Michelson found out as early as 1881 that ether theory was nonsense.

It was already clear before Einstein that space and time were relative, but the speed of light was constant. But he managed to combine these actually contradicting facts into one theory. Because Einstein was the first to recognize the consequences.

If light always travels at the same speed, it means that time does not always pass equally quickly and space cannot always be the same size. Because speed is expressed in the following formula as distance through time:

S = D/T

  • s = speed
  • d = distance traveled
  • t = time elapsed

So, the speed of light is always exactly 299,792,458 km/s.

What happens to time when you travel at the speed of light?

According to the theory of relativity, the consequence for an astronaut on board a rocket that approaches the speed of light more and more would be that the time on board slows down more and more. If the spaceship reached the speed of light, the time on board would stand still. If the astronaut arrived at their destination, they would not have noticed the trip. However, according to Einstein, this is not possible anyway.

This is ensured by its famous formula E = mc²: energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. The faster something gets, the bigger its mass. The larger the mass, the more energy is required for the drive. A rocket would need an infinite amount of energy to travel at speed of light. With this formula energy required can be calculated depending on the relative mass. According to Einstein, energy and mass are equivalent. However, the formula cannot be applied to “classical” physics, but only applies to relativistic physics.

Theory of relativity: what are time dilation and length contraction?

Depending on the speed of an object, the time which passes relative to the observer or the length of the object can be influenced. Time and length depend on speed.

The faster an object moves in space, the slower time passes relative to a resting observer. Even in the vicinity of large crowds, time passes more slowly. When an object moves in space at high speed, its length (in the direction of speed) is also compressed.

The theory of relativity: Curvature of space and time

Time passes more slowly near large masses. Large bodies of mass, such as a star, bend space (and time). You can think of this phenomenon as a large cloth that “bends” down when you put something heavy on it, such as a a watermelon. Space-time is curved in a similar way. This means that light is also deflected by large objects.


Why is light bent when it passess a massive body in space?

In our everyday life, we experience light only in straight lines – unaffected by gravity. In space, however, this way of thinking is wrong. Particularly massive objects such as stars, galaxies and black holes attract passing light rays and even bend or absorb them. For the first time, scientists were able to experimentally prove this phenomenon, known as the gravitational lens effect, during a solar eclipse in 1919.

The solar eclipse made it possible to observe those stars near the edge of the sun that were not visible otherwise. The result: The position of the marginal stars, or rather the light rays emanating from them, were slightly shifted. But how can gravity affect photons (light particles) without their own mass? The answer to this is provided by Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

What is gravitational lensing?

According to Einstein’s famous theory, we should not understand gravity as a force that attracts mass in a straight direction and moves it through space. Instead, the gravitation of very heavy objects causes a curvature of space-time. As three-dimensional beings, however, we humans cannot see this extra dimension and can hardly imagine it.

A thought aid: If you place a ball (mass) on a cloth (space) stretched in the air, the ball sags and deforms the tissue – the space curves. If you add smaller objects, they will follow the cloth towards the ball. In other words, they follow the curvature of the space.

What is the concrete situation in space? Earth also follows the space-time curvature in its orbit around the sun. Actually, the earth moves in a straight path, only in a curved space. The space-time curvature is now not only valid for planets, asteroids and other objects with mass. Light is bent by gravity because it also follow the curvature in space, although photons have no mass of their own.

How much does earth’s gravity bend light? Light travels very fast (299,792,458 m/s). The mass of the earth is far from sufficient to curve space in a way needed to prevent light from escaping it. It only would be bent by 0.0006 arc-seconds. Only a black hole has such a high mass that light cannot escape its corresponding curvature and is “swallowed”.

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