Tag Archives: NASA

An Amazing Spiral Formation of Stars Is Captured by NASA’s Hubble Telescope

Nature likes spirals – from the whirlwinds of a hurricane to the pinwheel-shaped protoplanetary disks around newborn stars to the vast regions of spiral galaxies in our Universe.

NASA Goddard | Spiral Formation of Stars

Now astronomers are surprised to find young stars spiraling into the center of a massive star cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has detected stars and gas spiraling toward the heart of a massive stellar nursery in the nearby Small Magellanic Cloud. This could provide important clues about how the stars formed when the 13.8 billion-year-old galaxy was only a few billion years old.

The Small Magellanic Cloud, where NGC 346 is located, is only 200,000 light-years from Earth and possesses stellar material with a mass equivalent to 50,000 suns. As a result, stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud are hotter and burn their fuel faster than stars in the Milky Way.

Spiral Stars

Astronomers utilized the Hubble Space Telescope to study star formation in the Small Magellanic Cloud for 11 years. They found that stars have moved about 320 million kilometers (200 million miles) during that time.

Using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument at the VLT, the second team of astronomers found that the stars were spiraling inward, promoting star formation.

Astronomers found young stars spiraling into the center of a giant, oddly shaped stellar nursery called NGC 346. A spiral is the most efficient way to feed star formation from the outside toward the center.

Hubble Spots Spiraling Stars

NGC 346 sits in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, located 200,000 light-years away. The SMC has a similar chemical composition to galaxies found in the younger Universe when heavier elements were more scarce. Because of this, the stars in the SMC burn hotter and run out of fuel quickly. SMC star formation provides insight into how a firestorm of star birth may have created a “baby boom” in the early Universe.

Extraordinarily precise observations were possible only because of Hubble’s high resolution and sensitivity. Hubble’s three decades of observations provide a baseline for astronomers to follow celestial motions over time. Observing long-term changes like this advances our understanding of star formation and other mysteries of the Universe.

VIEW LIVE: NASA prepares to launch moon mission with Artemis 1 rocket

At Kennedy Space Center, NASA’s Space Launch System is rolled out to Launch Pad 39B ahead of the Artemis 1 mission to the moon.

#Artemis #NASA #Moon

NASA’s Artemis 1 moon mission is poised to launch a new era of U.S. lunar exploration this month. The mission will carry a lot of science payloads, and you can listen in on three teleconferences for free.

NASA’s final press teleconference of the week will be at 12 p. EDT (1600 GMT) on Wednesday (Aug. 17). It will focus on radiation science NASA hopes to glean from the Artemis 1 mission.

The Orion spacecraft will include a radiation vest, plant experiments, and a cubesat that will grow yeast in space.

NASA’s Johnson Space Center, German Aerospace Center, StemRad, Southwest Research Institute and NASA’s Ames Research Center.

NASA will webcast live views of a Russian spacewalk on Wednesday from 9 a.m. EDT (1300 GMT).

The NASA Artemis 1 megarocket rolls back to the launch pad for its moon mission.
Artemis 1 rollout

Artemis 1 rollout

NASA’s webcast of the Artemis 1 rollout will begin at 10:45 a.m. EDT (1445 GMT) on Thursday, Aug. 18. A SpaceX Dragon cargo ship will depart the ISS on Thursday, Aug. 18.

NASA officials held a teleconference on Monday to highlight the lunar science payloads riding on Artemis I. The CubeSats will perform science and technology experiments in deep space.

At the briefing, NASA will introduce Jacob Bleacher, Craig Hardgrove, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Ryu Funase, Ben Malphrus, and Joseph Shoer.

NASA’s next briefing will be on Tuesday, Aug. 16, at 12 p.m. EDT (1600 GMT). Agency officials will discuss the technology demonstration and solar system science payloads riding aboard the mission.

NASA’s cubesat will use high-definition cameras and advanced imaging software to record images of the ICPS and the Earth and moon.

NASA’s NEOScout mission will launch with the Artemis I uncrewed test flight and will visit an asteroid called 2020 GE. It will use solar radiation for propulsion.

NASA aims to roll out the Space Launch System megarocket and Orion spacecraft to Launch Pad 39B on Tuesday (Aug. 16). The rollout will take several hours.

NASA’s Artemis 1 rocket rollout is set for 9 p.m. EDT on Aug. 16 .

Mars: Can Nuclear Propulsion Take Us There?

Scientists have been trying to find a way to use nuclear propulsion to get us to Mars for years. The idea is that it would be much cheaper and quicker than current methods. Nuclear propulsion works by using a nuclear reactor to heat up a gas, which then expands and pushes against the inside of the engine. This creates thrust, which propels the spacecraft forward.

A nuclear-powered rocket engine could be used to send astronauts to Mars. Real Engineering

The problem is that we don’t yet have a viable design for a nuclear engine that could take us to Mars. We also don’t know if the radiation from the engine would be harmful to astronauts.

Can nuclear propulsion take us to Mars?

For the first crewed missions to Mars, NASA’s considering two types of nuclear propulsion systems: nuclear electric and nuclear thermal. Also, NASA is investing in surface nuclear propulsion and fission energy technology to enable crewed missions. Also, NASA’s looking at nuclear-powered transportation systems to make surface missions shorter on Mars.

One part of the trip would take advantage of the planet’s low-energy orientation, and another part would use improved technology.

For Artemis, NASA’s developing nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear fission power. U.S. government is developing fuel fabrication capabilities, too. In order to develop and test new nuclear thermal propulsion fuels, NASA is working with DOE, industry, and universities. Research reactors at Idaho National Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology are testing the fuels.

A nuclear thermal propulsion system presents a major technical challenge, according to the head of NASA’s nuclear technology portfolio.

The fundamentals of nuclear propulsion can enable robust and efficient exploration beyond the moon for NASA’s manned Mars missions.

How long does it take to get to Mars with nuclear power?

Using nuclear thermal propulsion, scientists could shorten how long astronauts need to travel to Mars and stay there. USNC-Tech proposes it could be as short as three months. 

USNC-Tech’s technical director Michael Eades says nuclear rockets could make space travel possible for humans and open up space for galactic business opportunities.

NASA wants to reach its destination faster to reduce crew time in space. So NASA is trying to develop nuclear-powered rockets that could take astronauts to Mars and back in less than two years. 

USNC-Tech claims to have developed a fuel that can operate at temperatures as high as 2,700 degrees Kelvin (4,400 degrees Fahrenheit). 

According to Eades, the rocket’s design will reduce radiation. The distance between the crew and the nuclear reactor provides a buffer, and in case of a disaster, the rocket reactor would not land on Earth for tens of thousands of years.

Nuclear-powered rockets will be crucial to solar system exploration. USNC-Tech says its technology could help with space tourism and rapid logistics services in orbit. 

Still, it will take several demonstrations and tests before they go mainstream.

Things you should know about Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

NASA wants to send astronauts to Mars, and thermal nuclear engines could help it do so.

Nuclear rockets have a higher energy density and are twice as efficient. As a result, they can fly farther on less fuel. Additionally, NTPs allows for greater flexibility in space missions.

NASA and the Atomic Energy Commission studied nuclear thermal propulsion in the 1960s.

Three industry teams won a design competition in 2021 and are now developing their designs. In addition, DOE is helping NASA develop new fuels for thermal nuclear propulsion that reduce safety-related costs.

These fuels will be tested at Idaho National Laboratory’s Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility.


It is clear that nuclear propulsion could lead us to Mars faster than traditional methods. However, many challenges remain before this method can be used for manned missions. Nevertheless, atomic propulsion remains a promising future option for space exploration.

We will continue to explore all options for getting to Mars safely and efficiently.

Perseverance’s Most Unexpected Discovery on Mars So Far

The Perseverance Rover had to walk erratically across the deserts of Mars to avoid encroaching on its mission, just like the Fremen did in Frank Herbert’s 1965 epic sci-fi novel Dune.

Perseverance’s Most Surprising Mars Discovery: Discoveries made by Perseverance on Mars have surprised the scientific community each time they have been made.

NASA’s Perseverance Rover’s trip through Séítah, investigating Isolle, Brac and Roubion. Astrum | ENGINEERING – NASA – VIDEO

Perseverance had come to Mars to find samples of alien life beneath the planet’s surface but had had to struggle with the pitfalls of Martian geology.

Thankfully, it managed to collect its first rock sample after a year on the planet.

Unfortunately, when Mars and Earth are perfectly opposite to each other, communication between the planets becomes impossible.

Hence, NASA had to wait for these orbital bodies to move apart before Perseverance could start communicating again.

What did the Perseverance rover discover about Mars?

On Mars, liquid water used to exist, according to the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. As a result of that discovery, NASA’s Curiosity rover discovered conditions that could have supported life 4 billion years ago on Mars. Now Perseverance will search directly for signs of past life.

NASA’s Perseverance rover was sent to the Jezero crater to study the history of the area. To do this, it needed to find a safe route through the sand dunes, so its sidekick Ingenuity was sent to scout the area.

Perseverance set off in early November 2021, exploring the dunes, and made it to the protruding rock known as Brac.

Perseverance’s technique had been honed, and it was able to obtain new samples. It was discovered that the rocks in the Jezero crater were actually igneous and that the presence of water and high mineral count rocks would have been perfect conditions for life.

Perseverance’s mission seemed to be going well until it hit unexpected resistance while transferring a sample from a rock outcropping to its bit carousel.

NASA used Perseverance’s cameras to peer inside the carousel and found four small pebbles blocking the sample from being stored. Perseverance started by taking photos of the ground below it and then emptying its core sample tube onto the floor.

This would allow scientists to count the new arrivals and make sure they matched up with what had previously been seen inside the carousel.

Perseverance began to wiggle, and by rotating its carousel, it was able to dislodge two of the offending pebbles right then and there.

The remaining pebbles were stubborn, so Perseverance took things up a notch and drove away, searching for a spot where the slope was steeper.

James Webb Made A Stunning Discovery But There’s A Problem

The red object you are seeing in this video could be the farthest galaxy found to date. It has revealed some of the most intriguing secrets of the early universe.

Astronomers have found dozens of galaxies that existed at least a billion years after the big bang. Still, the first few hundred million years of the universe remain an uncharted epoch.

One of the most established methods to find distances to deep space galaxies is measuring the amount of redshift. This involves analyzing the spectral lines observed in distant galaxies and comparing them with those we observe on Earth.

Only one galaxy has been spectroscopically confirmed in the era of z > 10. Still, the Webb Space Telescope’s NIRCam instrument has opened a window to the z greater than ten epochs of the cosmos.

A new research paper has been published that reveals two remarkably luminous galaxy candidates between z = 11 and 13, which exist when the universe was just 300 million years old. The stellar mass of these two objects indicates that star formation took place quickly in the early galaxies.

Although the discovery of GLz-13 in the early data release demonstrates the true power of Webb, there is an interesting point to note. The galaxy HD1 has the record for the highest redshift of any galaxy in the first billion years of the universe.

Webb will have to perform a detailed analysis of HD1 and Glz13 to determine an accurate redshift value. If Webb is working at full capacity, hundreds of galaxies will be discovered at such distances within a year.

NASA’s Webb Space Telescope Seeing the Universe Like Never Before

Launched in 2009, the James Webb Space Telescope will observe galaxies at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers in the infrared. It will also look 2.5 million years into the past to study individual stars in the Andromeda Galaxy, our nearest big galaxy.


  • First full color, science-quality images of JWST
  • COSMOS-Webb: mapping the earliest structures of the Universe
  • Unearthing the fossilized Andromeda Galaxy
  • Star formation in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Small Magellanic Cloud
  • Trappist-1: checking the atmosphere of an exoplanet system
  • Discovering the composition of icy bodies beyond Neptune
During the telescope’s first operational cycle, five scientists will study the earliest galaxies, red giant stars in the disc of Andromeda, star-forming regions in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and mysterious icy bodies beyond Neptune’s orbit. The James Webb Space Telescope has released its first images, so now it’s time for science. #JamesWebb #NASA #Space

Space telescopes are like time machines because light takes time to travel. The speed of light means we can look back in time and see what the sun looked like eight minutes ago. A new telescope, the James Webb Space Telescope, has:

  • Delivered its first, full color, science-quality images
  • 50 successful deployments
  • Traveled one million miles from Earth
  • Calibrating and cooling to nearly absolute zero

We have over a year of planned observations, including galaxies as far away as possible, star-forming regions, the Trappist-1 system, and objects orbiting beyond the orbit of Neptune. We hope to uncover the greatest mysteries of the Universe today.

Galaxies and the universe, as seen by JWST

With the James Webb Space Telescope, we’ll be able to see galaxies that are 13.5 billion years old and learn a lot about the early Universe. There are four instruments on the telescope. We will use two of them to look back 2.5 million years and study the structure of individual stars in our nearest large galaxy, the Andromeda galaxy.

JWST will allow scientists to look into massive star-forming regions. In addition, to witness star birth more clearly than ever before.

With the help of the James Webb Space Telescope, scientists can begin to understand the evolution of the Universe. Starting with the first cold gas and dust lying around millions of years after the Big Bang.

Our nearest large galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy, will be studied using infrared light from the James Webb Space Telescope. The possibility exists to turn back the clock on the physics of our universe if we connect all the dots.

Frequently asked questions

What is an infrared telescope?

Astronomers use telescopes and instruments optimized for infrared light to study the earliest star and galaxy formations in the universe. Unfortunately, Star and planet formation in our local universe occurs in dense, dusty clouds, so they’re not visible to our eyes.

Infrared wavelengths allow JWST to see galaxies that formed early in the Universe and peer into dust clouds where stars and planets are forming.

What is the difference between Hubble and Space Telescope?

Webb’s main mirror measures 6.5 meters, compared to Hubble’s 2.4 meters. As a result, the Webb telescope can gather seven times more light and look deeper into the past. In addition, Webb features cameras that detect infrared or “thermal” radiation. Light normally in visible wavelengths shifts to longer infrared wavelengths that are invisible to us because of the universe’s expansion.

In contrast, the Hubble telescope is in low Earth orbit, where astronauts can visit and fix broken parts or install new ones. As a result, it lived longer than expected.

Webb will use four science instruments to take images and spectra of astronomical objects, most of which are in the infrared range. First, Hubble will study the visible and ultraviolet regions. Then Hubble can see the equivalent of “infant galaxies,” while Webb will see “baby galaxies” because it is an infrared telescope.

What did we learn from James Webb Telescope?

We can learn a lot from the early photographs taken by JWST, but what exactly has it taught us? The JWST has released its first images, and they show what it’s capable of. There’s a lot of excitement from astrophysicists surrounding the telescope’s capabilities, and they’re now trying to figure out how to apply it to their research.


Webb will be able to observe planets in or beyond Mars’ orbit, as well as satellites, comets, asteroids, and Kuiper belt objects. Many important molecules, ices, and minerals have distinct signatures at the wavelengths that Webb can detect. Additionally, Webb will monitor the weather patterns of planets and their moons.

Webb’s science operations begin with the release of its first full-color images and spectra, where astronomers will have the chance to observe anything from objects within our solar system to the early universe.

The James Webb Space Telescope is an international program led by NASA with the support of the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

How will the James Webb Telescope help scientists?

Scientists will use Webb’s cameras to “time-travel” back to when the earliest galaxies were forming right after the Big Bang.

Webb contains two tools that will allow scientists to unravel the wavelengths of infrared signals from solar systems beyond our planet – intertwining the colors of the infrared rainbow.

Scientists can see the birthplaces of stars with infrared light, which can penetrate through dust better than visible light. This allows scientists to see how stars form in clusters and how planets form around stars.

Scientists use X-ray telescopes to study the physics of black holes. Still, Webb’s infrared instruments will allow them to see the temperatures, speeds, and chemical compositions of the stellar cloaks of black holes.

Is it possible to have an earthquake in Mars?

Scientists have considered Mars to be a dead planet. However, measurements of earthquakes on Mars indicate that there may still be movement of molten rocks beneath the planet’s solid crust.

The magnetic field of the earth is created by the movement of conductive materials in the planet’s core. The heat emitted from the solid inner core layer heats the base of the liquid outer core layer, which creates a circular flow pattern that creates the magnetic field.

Mars has no magnetic field and no internal circulation currents, indicating that its core and mantle are relatively cold and quiet.

NASA’s InSight lander measured 465 earthquakes on Mars. Many of them were caused by the two small moons of Mars tidally pulling on the surface and the sun heating it.

Researchers measured hundreds of earthquakes on Mars using the Insight lander’s seismometer. They found 47 previously undetected earthquakes, which occurred over a period of 350 Mars days, i.e., 359 Earth days.

The Researchers think Mars’ tremors are caused by a molten rock moving in the upper mantle. On the other hand, the loss of the magnetic field may be due to another factor.

Why Scientists Think Elon Musk’s Mars Idea is Terrible – VIDEO

Mars Archives – Curiosity Guide

Earthquakes on Mars

Mars may be more active than we thought, with molten rocks still moving beneath its solid surface.

Mars has a relatively cool and quiet core and mantle that does not lose significant heat into space and do not create any internal circulation currents.

Scientists have found that underneath the surface of Mars, a lot of activity is taking place. The tremors are being caused by the stretching and contracting of the surface and the warming of the surface by the Sun.

Measurements of earthquakes on Mars indicate that it is not a geologically dead planet, and that molten rocks are still moving beneath its solid crust.

The slow cooling of the planets creates a magnetic field, and the flow of heat from the solid inner core layer to the liquid outer core layer creates earthquakes.

Scientists have measured 465 earthquakes on Mars since the seismic sensors began to operate, and the vast majority of them were caused by the stretching and contraction processes of the surface.

The mantle around the core

The movement of conductive materials in the earth’s core and the mantle around the core creates the earth’s magnetic field. The movement of conductive materials in the core also creates the earth’s tectonic plates and earthquakes.

Mars has a relatively cold and quiet core and mantle, which do not lose significant heat to space and do not create internal circulation currents. However, researchers believe that the movement of molten rock in the upper part of the mantle is responsible for the tremors discovered on Mars.

NASA’s InSight Records the largest quake ever observed on another planet

InSight has detected 1,313 quakes on Mars since November 2018, including the largest quake ever observed on another planet.

InSight was sent to Mars with a highly sensitive seismometer to study the planet’s deep interior. The seismometer detected a magnitude 5 quake, and scientists are now analyzing the data to learn more about the structure of Mars.

The large earthquake comes as InSight faces new challenges with its solar panels. The mission may enter safe mode again as available power slowly decreases.

Why Scientists Think Elon Musk’s Mars Idea is Terrible

Elon Musk thinks he has all the answers to our future survival, but his brilliant idea involves nuking mars. We found an insane new video where we explain why this isn’t such an intelligent strategy after all.

The Infographics Show

How did Elon Musk plan to warm up Mars?

Elon Musk said that dropping thermonuclear weapons over the poles would allow us to terraform Mars. Still, he is not a scientist and has never published a peer-reviewed study pertaining to any of the sciences. Furthermore, nuking Mars’ poles would release greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere that would warm up the planet. 

This would allow humans and other lifeforms on planet Earth to live comfortably on Mars.

Elon Musk has stated that he plans to nuke Mars to warm up the planet to hospitable levels by releasing CO2 stored in the planet’s rocks and crust. Still, a recent study has shown that there isn’t enough CO2 contained within the surface rocks on Mars. 

Elon Musk’s plan to nuke Mars to create a habitable planet faces several problems, including the fact that Mars does not have a magnetic field protecting it and that solar winds tend to eject gasses from Mars’ atmosphere into space. In addition, Elon Musk’s plan to nuke Mars would not result in the planet being terraformed because it would increase greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and cause a large amount of radiation. 

It would also take decades before it would be safe to grow plants on the surface. A nuclear winter would cause the temperature to drop even lower than it already is, and since there isn’t enough water or carbon dioxide on the surface of the planet to raise the temperature to adequate levels, nuking Mars is not a great option.

How can we protect Mars from solar wind?

A former NASA scientist has developed a plan to block the sun’s harmful effects on Mars’ atmosphere by setting up a magnetic shield between Mars and the sun. This would allow the planet to warm up and begin the terraforming process without human intervention. 

The magnetic shield will need to follow the orbit of Mars to keep it protected from the sun’s radiation, and we still need to find a way to put more greenhouse gasses into the Martian atmosphere. 

The entire surface of Mars would need to be mined to release enough greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere to increase the temperature of the planet. However, we don’t know if there is enough CO2 contained within the buried Martian rocks and minerals to create the desired effect.

How long would it take to terraform Mars with nukes?

The harvesting method would require a massive amount of energy to terraform the planet. Even if we detonated all the nukes we currently have on Mars, it wouldn’t be enough. Scientists think the only way to generate adequate constant energy is by using a source of fusion power similar to the sun. Scientists have proposed that we could terraform Mars faster by capturing a large asteroid full of ice and ammonia and slamming it into the Red Planet. 

This would release water and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere while simultaneously adding more greenhouse gasses to the planet. Using asteroids to terraform Mars would take centuries and involve moving a ten billion-ton asteroid through Mars’ atmosphere and slamming it into the planet. 

This would generate around 130 million megawatts of power and raise the temperature of the planet by around 35 degrees Fahrenheit. Using greenhouse gasses from old air conditioners and refrigerators, we could terraform Mars without nuking the planet or slamming countless asteroids into it. 

Instead, we would need to launch countless missions with supplies and colonists to build settlements and factories on the surface of Mars. A colony on Mars could be built using tons of resources, but it would take a long time. 

There may also be a way to increase temperatures on Mars from space. A giant mirror would need to be placed on one side of Mars to intensify the sunlight and cause global temperature change. Unfortunately, this would also cause the melting of the ice caps and the release of carbon dioxide trapped within the Martian rocks.

What happens when the levels of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere increase?

Once we get the greenhouse gasses to the right levels and Mars reaches a habitable climate, we will need to put oxygen into the atmosphere for us to breathe. 

This is because plants take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere for photosynthesis, releasing oxygen back into the air. Unfortunately, growing plants on Mars is easier said than done because the Martian soil is devoid of all nutrients. 

First, we will need to find a way to fertilize the entire planet. Then pioneering species will convert rocks and sand into usable soil. 

The question of whether or not we should modify an entire planet to suit our needs comes up with all the talk of nuking, harvesting resources and changing the atmosphere of Mars.

If we want to terraform Mars, we will need a magnetic shield, a giant mirror, and a way to pump greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. We will also need to study asteroids and continue to fund scientific missions and technological research.

If China Colonized Mars Before NASA\SpaceX, What Happens?

This question was inspired by Elon Musk’s announcement that he plans to send humans to Mars within the next 50 years. But what would happen if China were to beat him to the punch? Would we ever see Chinese astronauts walking on Mars? What would happen to our world if China were to colonize Mars? And what would happen if China colonized Mars before NASA and SpaceX?

These questions are important because they’re not just hypothetical. They’re real possibilities.

China calls it Mars exploration/immigration, while the United States calls it colonization. These two countries’ space programs are very different. The Chinese program focuses on sending robots to explore other planets, while the American program focuses on settling other planets. #Spacex #Space #Mars

If China were to successfully colonize Mars before NASA and SpaceX, it would change everything. The United States would lose its position as the leader of space exploration. China would become the new superpower in space travel.

And what would happen to our world? Well, let’s take a closer look at these questions.

Can China colonize Mars?

China has already sent its first probe to orbit the moon, but it will take them another decade or so before they are ready for an interplanetary mission.

The Chinese are planning to launch a manned mission to Mars in 2033. They’re currently training astronauts and preparing facilities for habitation.

I could see Mars becoming a collection of smaller countries, each representing a distinct culture. These nations may not always get along with each other, but they’ll still need to work together if they’re ever going to colonize the Red Planet.

Suppose we continue to invest in space technology. In that case, it won’t be long until we send humans to explore our solar system. And when we do, there’s no doubt that China will lead the way.

But this isn’t just about science fiction. We need to prepare ourselves for the future. The Chinese government is investing billions of dollars in space technology, and they’re not stopping there.

As for me, I think/believe that

First, of course, there will likely be a war for control on the surface of Mars, and it’s entirely possible that one nation will win out over another. But even after that happens, the Martian government won’t be able to rule the planet completely. Instead, it will have to work with other governments to ensure its survival.