Category Archives: Curiosities

Why Scientists Think Elon Musk’s Mars Idea is Terrible

Elon Musk thinks he has all the answers to our future survival, but his brilliant idea involves nuking mars. We found an insane new video where we explain why this isn’t such an intelligent strategy after all.

The Infographics Show

How did Elon Musk plan to warm up Mars?

Elon Musk said that dropping thermonuclear weapons over the poles would allow us to terraform Mars. Still, he is not a scientist and has never published a peer-reviewed study pertaining to any of the sciences. Furthermore, nuking Mars’ poles would release greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere that would warm up the planet. 

This would allow humans and other lifeforms on planet Earth to live comfortably on Mars.

Elon Musk has stated that he plans to nuke Mars to warm up the planet to hospitable levels by releasing CO2 stored in the planet’s rocks and crust. Still, a recent study has shown that there isn’t enough CO2 contained within the surface rocks on Mars. 

Elon Musk’s plan to nuke Mars to create a habitable planet faces several problems, including the fact that Mars does not have a magnetic field protecting it and that solar winds tend to eject gasses from Mars’ atmosphere into space. In addition, Elon Musk’s plan to nuke Mars would not result in the planet being terraformed because it would increase greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and cause a large amount of radiation. 

It would also take decades before it would be safe to grow plants on the surface. A nuclear winter would cause the temperature to drop even lower than it already is, and since there isn’t enough water or carbon dioxide on the surface of the planet to raise the temperature to adequate levels, nuking Mars is not a great option.

How can we protect Mars from solar wind?

A former NASA scientist has developed a plan to block the sun’s harmful effects on Mars’ atmosphere by setting up a magnetic shield between Mars and the sun. This would allow the planet to warm up and begin the terraforming process without human intervention. 

The magnetic shield will need to follow the orbit of Mars to keep it protected from the sun’s radiation, and we still need to find a way to put more greenhouse gasses into the Martian atmosphere. 

The entire surface of Mars would need to be mined to release enough greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere to increase the temperature of the planet. However, we don’t know if there is enough CO2 contained within the buried Martian rocks and minerals to create the desired effect.

How long would it take to terraform Mars with nukes?

The harvesting method would require a massive amount of energy to terraform the planet. Even if we detonated all the nukes we currently have on Mars, it wouldn’t be enough. Scientists think the only way to generate adequate constant energy is by using a source of fusion power similar to the sun. Scientists have proposed that we could terraform Mars faster by capturing a large asteroid full of ice and ammonia and slamming it into the Red Planet. 

This would release water and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere while simultaneously adding more greenhouse gasses to the planet. Using asteroids to terraform Mars would take centuries and involve moving a ten billion-ton asteroid through Mars’ atmosphere and slamming it into the planet. 

This would generate around 130 million megawatts of power and raise the temperature of the planet by around 35 degrees Fahrenheit. Using greenhouse gasses from old air conditioners and refrigerators, we could terraform Mars without nuking the planet or slamming countless asteroids into it. 

Instead, we would need to launch countless missions with supplies and colonists to build settlements and factories on the surface of Mars. A colony on Mars could be built using tons of resources, but it would take a long time. 

There may also be a way to increase temperatures on Mars from space. A giant mirror would need to be placed on one side of Mars to intensify the sunlight and cause global temperature change. Unfortunately, this would also cause the melting of the ice caps and the release of carbon dioxide trapped within the Martian rocks.

What happens when the levels of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere increase?

Once we get the greenhouse gasses to the right levels and Mars reaches a habitable climate, we will need to put oxygen into the atmosphere for us to breathe. 

This is because plants take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere for photosynthesis, releasing oxygen back into the air. Unfortunately, growing plants on Mars is easier said than done because the Martian soil is devoid of all nutrients. 

First, we will need to find a way to fertilize the entire planet. Then pioneering species will convert rocks and sand into usable soil. 

The question of whether or not we should modify an entire planet to suit our needs comes up with all the talk of nuking, harvesting resources and changing the atmosphere of Mars.

If we want to terraform Mars, we will need a magnetic shield, a giant mirror, and a way to pump greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. We will also need to study asteroids and continue to fund scientific missions and technological research.

What is the radiative zone in the Sun?

What is the Radiative Zone?

A radiation zone is a layer in the interior of a star where energy is transported outwards by radiative diffusion and thermal conduction rather than by convection.

The opacity and radiation flux within a star’s layers determine how effective radiative diffusion is at transporting energy. High opacity or high luminosity causes a high-temperature gradient.

Layers of the Sun Explained – Inner Layers. The existence of all life on Earth depends on the sun. It determines time and climate and is the center of our solar system. Astronomers estimate our sun will die in a few hundred million years when all of its nuclear fuel will have burnt up, and the planet will cease to exist. Fortunately, we can attain the infinite energy of the sun early, even before it is dead. #sun

It’s official: Astronaut’s brain grows after spaceflight in outer space

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The radiation zone is stable against the formation of convection cells if the density gradient is high enough.

A polytrope solution with n=3 and a left-hand side constant gives a stable radiation zone against convection.

At a sufficiently large radius, the opacity increases due to the decrease in temperature and possibly also due to a lower degree of ionization in the lower shells of the heavy element ions.

Main sequence stars are entirely convective below 0.3 solar masses and have a radiative zone around the stellar core. Above 1.2 solar masses, the radiative zone becomes a convection zone.

The radiation zone is a region of the Sun between the solar core and the outer convection zone.

The radiation zone is a thick layer of highly ionized, very dense gases that are constantly bombarded by the gamma rays of the nucleus. It consists of about 75% hydrogen and 24% helium. Since most of the atoms here lack electrons, they cannot absorb photons that might penetrate the surface. Most photons simply bounce back. Occasionally, a photon is absorbed.

When the Sun cools from a fusion fireball to a plasma ball, it happens at the interface between the radiation zone and the radiation zone. No convection occurs in this layer, he said. Instead, heat is transferred via thermal radiation. The incoming light particles (photons) are absorbed in specific ways by specific atoms inside the star before being transmitted back at higher frequencies. It can take light particles thousands of years to spiral through this layer before they finally reach the star’s surface.

What is the Sun’s nuclear fusion?

Because all other protons repel all other protons, the average proton must collide head-on with another proton and be fast enough to merge in 7 billion years. In the Sun, there are many protons, so some collide in seconds, and others never will. This is why the sun doesn’t explode all at once. Due to the instability of the two-proton nucleus, one of the protons decays into a neutron right away. Neutrinos and positrons are released during the decay. As the positron collides with the electron (the antimatter equivalent of the electron), both become gamma rays. After leaving the sun, neutrinos travel at nearly the speed of light.

What is the difference between a nucleus and an atomic nucleus?

These two collide, forming for a moment a sphere with four protons and two neutrons. But two protons are knocked away by the force of the collision, leaving a stable helium nucleus with two protons and two neutrons.

What is the Sun’s origin?

Five billion years ago, the Sun’s predecessor was a cloud with a diameter of 500 trillion kilometers or 50 light years. It was a near vacuum.

What Happens When a Cloud collapses?

These globules were still what Earth would consider a vacuum, and their temperatures had only risen to -400° F (-240° C). They were visible only as dark circles beneath a blanket of dust, and each orb was a trillion miles across and 25 solar masses in mass.

What was the Sun’s diameter?

After a few more thousand years, our sun had a diameter of about 225 million miles. The temperature in the core often exceeded 60 000 °C, which is hot enough to remove the electrons from the atoms, but not yet hot enough to melt two hydrogen nuclei. The surface temperature was about 1500 °C, cooler than the Sun’s surface today, but large enough to emit many times more light than the Sun.

What Happens When the Sun collapses?

After five billion years, fusion in the Sun’s core will cease and gravity will cause the star to collapse. The heat of the collapse will exceed the heat of fusion; it will even reach 150 000 000 000° F (about 80 000 000 000° C), and the Sun will expand for a few hundred million years, eventually swallowing up the planet Mercury. As the Sun grows, it will become a red giant. Then its surface will be so large that it will emit 500 times more light than it does today.

What happens when it produces too much heat?

The core will then be hot enough to melt helium into carbon and oxygen. Fusion will generate more heat, so much so that the new helium-rich nucleus can no longer radiate. In a few hours, the core will explode. The Sun’s outer layer absorbs the explosion. The core will lose enough heat to stabilize and begin to collapse. Again it will produce too much heat and explode, causing the Sun to swell dramatically. This process will repeat, so the Sun will grow and shrink many times.

What is the core of the sun made of?

The core of the Sun is made up of 64% helium, surrounded by a shell of molten hydrogen – 35% of the core’s mass. All the other elements in the Universe make up only 1% of the Sun’s core. All the energy the Sun radiates is generated in the core. The energy generated every second by 4.5 million tonnes of matter in the core raises its temperature to a spectacular 14 000 000 °C. 

The nuclear reaction that takes place in the nucleus produces tiny particles called neutrinos that react surprisingly little with matter. These particles rush out of the Sun at almost the speed of light and take just five seconds to do so. The energy produced by this reaction is emitted in the form of gamma rays.

Due to the density of the Sun’s core – 10 times denser than silver or iron – and the state of the atoms in the core, photons can’t get sucked back in. Before leaving the core, they bounce around for 40 million years.

What Happens When the Queen of England Dies?

Queen Elizabeth II is the longest reigning monarch in modern history and has ruled England as Queen since 1952.

Queen Elizabeth II passes her 96th birthday.
What Happens When the Queen of England Dies?

The Queen has only ceremonial powers and no real political power to enforce change or policy. For example, if she withheld her approval of a law, the entire government would have to resign, and a new one would have to be installed.

The British monarchy does something good for England by acting as the country’s ambassador abroad. When the Queen dies, Prince Charles will become the new King, and his siblings will solemnly kiss his hands and pledge loyalty to the new King of the United Kingdom.

The news will be relayed through secure communications channels to the 15 governments where the Queen is technically still head of state and will be greeted with a casual shrug of the shoulders.

The British media will focus entirely on the Queen’s death, and the nation will enter a period of mourning. The new King will then perform the necessary rituals and proclamations and embark on a tour of the four nations of the United Kingdom.

The passing of Queen Elizabeth II will have a significant impact on the British psyche, as she represents the “great decline” of the British Empire, which the nation has been unable to stop.

In the event of Queen Elizabeth II’s death, what to expect

British media will be wholly consumed by the  event of the Queen's death.

In the event of Her Royal Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’s death, what will happen to the people who don’t know life without her?

The nation will be in shock after the Queen’s death, but before the public learns of her death, several things must happen behind the scenes.

Once the Queen has passed away, her private secretary will inform the Prime Minister, and then the State Department’s Global Response Centre will inform the other Commonwealth countries.

Buckingham Palace will post a notice on its gates informing the public of her death. In addition, the left arm of all staff members will be adorned with a black armband.

ITV and Sky staff have been using the code word Mrs. Robinson to refer to the Queen for years, and news outlets are scrambling for space in all key locations.

Once Queen Elizabeth dies, Prince Charles becomes king and takes the name Charles III. There will be proclamations and Charles will visit Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.

Prince Charles attended a memorial service at the Welsh Guards Chapel and laid a wreath at the Guards’ Memorial.

The queen’s body will remain at Buckingham Palace for 10 days before being transferred to Westminister Hall for a state funeral attended by state officials worldwide.

A funeral service will be held at St. Giles Cathedral in Edinburgh if the Queen dies at Balmoral. She will be carried up the Royal Mile to Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh after moving her body to Holyroodhouse.

King Charles III

King Charles III

Prince Charles will become King when the Queen dies. He will be allowed to choose his name. After he becomes King, there will be a meeting of the Accessions Council at St James’ Palace. After that, all formalities will take place, including naming him King.

He will be named Charles III. A proclamation will be made, and while the Queen lies dead in state, Charles will go to Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, and other parts of the United Kingdom. His first words as King will take place at St. James’ Palace.

When the Queen of England Dies. The Infographics Show, Jul 14, 2022.

What are Mempool transactions?

A blockchain is a public ledger of all transactions that have ever occurred within a particular cryptocurrency network. Each block contains a timestamp and a list of transactions that took place at that time. These blocks are linked together chronologically, forming a chain. When a user wants to send money to another address, they must first put their funds into an account called a wallet. Once a wallet has received funds, it will create a transaction record in the blockchain. This transaction record includes information about the sender, recipient, amount, and date/time of the transaction. The transaction is then broadcasted to the network, which verifies that the sender has enough funds to cover the transaction

Crypto transactions use cryptography to secure transactions

A transaction is conducted and then validated by miners or validators. A miner is someone who solves a cryptographic puzzle using specialized hardware. Validators are people who verify transactions and keep track of them.

Cryptocurrency transactions are different from each other because they use different algorithms. Some use proof of work, while others use proof of stake. Some require multiple confirmations, whereas others require just one.

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency that allows users to transfer funds quickly and securely. It works like cash, except that it doesn’t require banks or any middlemen. Instead, transactions are verified by miners, who get paid in Bitcoins for doing so. Miners verify transactions by solving complex mathematical problems, and once a problem is solved, the miner gets rewarded with a block of Bitcoins.

What is a Mempool?

Every blockchain has a different number of nodes, which affects the amount of mempools present on the network. You may find that certain references call mempools “the mempool.” While this is okay when referencing a specific mempool, you should keep in mind that there isn’t just one big mempool spread across an entire blockchain. Instead, each node has its very own mempool. So the more nodes a network contains, the more mempool there will be.

Mempools are a type of transaction queue. They are used to store unconfirmed transactions until they are confirmed. Mempools are also used to store transactions that have been rejected by miners.

A Mempool is a pool of unconfirmed transactions

A mem pool is a place where pending transactions wait until they can be confirmed on the blockchain. Transactions are not completed at once. Instead, they need to be verified by a network of nodes before they can be considered complete. This can take time, so transactions need somewhere to go while they await confirmation. This “somewhere” is the mempool. Mempools are usually located on the same server as the wallet software but can also be hosted on separate servers.

A transaction is added to the blockchain when it is broadcasted to all nodes. Once a transaction enters the mempool, it will remain there until it is confirmed. Nodes can store information about unconfirmed transactions in their mempools. The amount of space available to each node depends on the type of hardware they use. High-end hardware allows for larger mempools, while low-end hardware may not allow for enough room to store large amounts of data.

Mempools are a component of blockchain technology. They are a queue of transactions waiting to be included in blocks. When many transactions are waiting to be added to the blockchain, the mempool becomes full. If the mempool is not emptied regularly, then the transaction fee will increase. Transaction fees are charged when a user sends money to another address.

When a transaction is added to the blockchain, it is stored in a memory pool. When the size of the memory pool reaches a certain threshold, miners and validators prioritize transactions with higher fees. If you choose the lowest possible transaction fee, you may end up waiting longer for your transaction to be processed.

Some traders use transaction accelerators to try to get their transactions out of the mempool faster. These tools are designed to help you get your transaction out of the mempool quickly. You can also pay a fee to prioritize your transaction.

Once a transaction is confirmed, the blockchain is updated, and the transaction is added to the mempool. If the transaction doesn’t meet the minimum fee, it will be removed from the mempool and won’t be processed.

Mempools aren’t perfect. There are many criticisms of them, including that they create an unfair advantage for wealthy miners. This is also seen within the mining industry, wherein the equipment required to mine Bitcoin is expensive and requires a lot of electricity. Those who can afford to buy more expensive equipment stand a greater chance of finding a block and earning rewards.

Mempools are crucial for verifying crypto transactions

Mempools are an essential component of any cryptocurrency network. Without them, nodes would not be able to see pending transactions and organize the mining or validation processes. Mempools are often criticized for their lack of transparency. However, they are still vital to the operation of a blockchain network.

UK and beyond are illuminated by the Buck Moon display

In this time of year, when the moon is closest to the Earth, the Buck Moon or supermoon is the biggest and brightest full moon. The spectacular supermoon lit up the night sky on Wednesday night for lucky stargazers across the UK.

Around this time of year, male deer shed and regrow their antlers, which is why the full moon in July is known as Buck Moon.

Moon rising above the Needles on the Isle of Wight
Image caption, Graham Wiffen captured this picture of the moon over The Needles on the Isle of Wight

English skies have been lit up by what is believed to be the biggest and brightest moon of the year.

The Buck Moon – July’s full moon – was most visible Wednesday evening and was classified as a “supermoon”.

Due to its proximity to perigee, the Moon was larger and brighter during this event.

NASA cited the Maine Farmer’s Almanac as saying the Algonquin Native Americans of what is now the north-east United States called it the “Buck Moon.” It occurs when buck deer begin to grow antlers.

Moon in Beeley Moor
Image caption, The Buck Moon was captured by local resident Jim in Beeley Moor, Derbyshire

Clear skies allowed lots of people to enjoy the impressive spectacle. The Buck Moon will be the biggest and brightest supermoon of the year because it represents the moon’s closest point to the Earth in 2022. The moon orbits the Earth on an elliptical path, rather than a circular one.

Moon in Burbage
Image caption, Andy Johson in Burbage, Leicestershire, grabbed a close-up view
Moon in Matlock
Image caption, Chris Cookman took this picture in Matlock, Derbyshire
Moon in Matlock
Image caption, Another picture of the supermoon in Matlock taken by Chris Cookman
Moon in Ripley
Image caption, Hiding behind the trees, this picture of the moon was captured in Ripley, Derbyshire
Buck Moon in East Leake
Image caption, A close-up taken by Maggie T Howlett in East Leake, Nottinghamshire

UK Buck Moon

The Supermoon as it rises through low clouds from Lauder Moor in the Scottish Borders

Awesome photographs have captured Buck Moon at various locations throughout the UK and elsewhere in the world.

What is the deepest picture of the universe?

The latest Hubble discoveries are astonishing! Just look at this newly formed giant exoplanet from the constellation Auriga, which is nine times the mass of Jupiter. How about this breathtaking image of a head-on collision between two galaxies known collectively as Arp 143?

They passed through each other, causing a gigantic triangular firestorm with thousands of stars bursting into life. But the telescope could capture much bigger events. Its images changed astronomers’ view of many secrets of the cosmos. Hubble even became a time machine, allowing scientists to see into the past of our universe.

What other astonishing images did the telescope take? And how did a single image taken by Hubble change science once and for all?

How was the eXtreme Deep Field image captured? Hubble is acquiring a new target

Hubble telescope deep space image

To allow us to see deep space, the creators of the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] had to work hard. The need for an orbital observatory was discussed back in the seventies. Scientists wanted to get clearer images of deep space than those taken from Earth. Unfortunately, our atmosphere makes observations difficult by absorbing and distorting light. We’re going to show you some more incredible images, but first… a little quick history of Hubble.

In 1977, the U.S. Congress authorized the construction of a space telescope with the help of NASA. They decided to name it after the outstanding astronomer Edwin Hubble.

The most difficult thing was to make the huge observatory mirror. It was constructed of heat-resistant glass with incredibly thin but durable coatings – a layer of aluminum 65 [nm] nanometers thick protected with a magnesium fluoride layer 25 [nm] nanometers thick.

The entire space telescope turned out to be nearly the size of a school bus. Its primary mirror has a weight of 827 kilograms [1,825 lbs] and has a diameter of 2.4 meters [7.8 ft]. This mirror captures light from a space object and reflects it onto a secondary mirror 0.3 meters [12 inches] in diameter. This smaller mirror was placed in the optical tube.

It reflects light through a hole in the main mirror, forming an image in the telescope. From there it is sent to scientific instruments. At the time of Hubble’s launch, there were six such instruments. These are wide-angle and planetary cameras equipped with a set of 48 light filters to highlight light spectra. The wide-angle one has a large field of view, and the planetary one made it possible to greatly increase the observation points.

Another device, a high-resolution spectrograph, was designed to operate in the ultraviolet range. With its help, the telescope can see dim objects captured by a special camera. The High-Speed Photometer [HSP] can observe variable stars and other objects with varying brightness.

And the Fine Guidance Sensors [FGS] record changes in the position of the object. Scientific instruments were located in the tail section of the HST.

The Hubble Space Telescope is equipped with six gyroscopes, four reaction wheels, two main computers, two wing-like solar arrays, and four antennas. It consumes an average of 2,100 watts of power per day and orbits the Earth every 95 minutes.

Astronomers were thrilled for Hubble to be ready for the launch, but when the Space Shuttle Discovery took off with the telescope, the images were blurry. Spacewalking astronauts fixed the telescope during four servicing missions.

Hubble has been scanning the Universe for over 30 years, and scientists have transformed its images into color.

Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image

In 1995, astronomers used Hubble to study a piece of dark sky over the constellation Ursa Major. They found over 1,500 galaxies at various stages in their evolution, including some that were born during the infancy of our universe.

This is how the Hubble Deep Field was created. But it didn’t end there. In 2004, based on the first version, the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image was made, containing an estimated 10,000 galaxies. The snapshot contains galaxies of various ages, including the most distant red dim galaxies. Scientists believe they were born during the infancy of our universe when it was just about 800 million years old.

In 2012, astronomers unveiled the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, which was assembled by combining 10 years of the telescope’s data.

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is an image of a small area of space in the constellation Fornax, created using Hubble Space Telescope data from 2003 and 2004. It contains about 5,500 galaxies, including many faint galaxies that are one ten-billionth the brightness of what the human eye can see.

Hubble’s two premier cameras captured 2,000 images of the same field of sky over 50 days to create the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (XDF). The XDF allows scientists to explore further back in time than ever before.

Physics principles and application of generator

How a generator works

Generators are machines that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The principle of operation of a generator is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, when an EMF is induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field and crossing its magnetic lines of force. Consequently, we can consider such a conductor as a source of electrical energy.

The method of obtaining the induced EMF, in which the conductor moves in the magnetic field, moving up or down, is very inconvenient in its practical use. Therefore, in generators, not a straight line, but a rotary motion of the conductor is used.

The main parts of any generator are: a system of magnets or most often electromagnets, creating a magnetic field, and a system of conductors crossing this magnetic field.

Electric generator (A.C. & D.C.) | Magnetic effects of current. Khan Academy – English
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Let’s take a conductor in the form of a curved loop, which we will further call a frame (Fig. 1), and place it in the magnetic field created by the poles of the magnet. If such a frame is given a rotational motion relative to the axis 00, its sides facing the poles will cross magnetic lines of force and an EMF will be induced in them.

 EMF induction in a loop-shaped conductor (frame) rotating in a magnetic field
Fig. 1. EMF induction in a loop-shaped conductor (frame) rotating in a magnetic field

By attaching an electric bulb to the frame with soft conductors, we thereby close the circuit and the bulb lights up. The light bulb will continue to burn as long as the frame rotates in the magnetic field. Such a device is a simple generator, which converts the mechanical energy used to rotate the frame into electrical energy.

Such a simple generator has a rather significant disadvantage. After a short period of time the soft conductors connecting the bulb to the rotating frame will twist and break. In order to avoid such breaks in the circuit, the ends of the frame (Fig.2) are connected to two copper rings 1 and 2 rotating with the frame.

These rings are called contact rings. Feeding electric current from the contact rings into an external circuit (to the bulb) is carried out by the elastic plates 3 and 4, adjacent to the rings. These plates are called brushes.

Direction of induced EMF (and current) in conductors A and B of the frame rotating in the magnetic field: 1 and 2 - contact rings, 3 and 4 - brushes
Fig. 2. Direction of induced EMF (and current) in conductors A and B of the frame rotating in the magnetic field: 1 and 2 – contact rings, 3 and 4 – brushes.

With this connection of the bogie to the external circuit, there is no interruption of the connecting wires and the generator operates normally.

Let us now consider the direction of the emf induced in the conductors of the frame, or the direction of the current induced in the frame when the external circuit is closed.

With the frame rotating in the direction shown in Fig. 2, the left conductor AA is induced in the direction away from us beyond the drawing plane and the right conductor BB is induced from beyond the drawing plane toward us.

Since the two halves of the frame conductor are connected in series, the induced emf in them adds up to create a positive pole at brush 4 and a negative pole at brush 3.

Trace the change in induced electromotive force during one complete revolution of the frame. When the frame is rotated 90° clockwise from the position shown in Fig. 2, the conductor halves at that point move along the magnetic lines of force, and the induction of emf into the frame ceases.

Further rotation of the frame by 90° causes the conductors of the frame to cross the magnetic field lines (Fig. 3), but conductor АА moves downward instead of upward with respect to the field lines, and conductor В, on the other hand, crosses the field lines upward.

Change of direction of induced emf (and current) when the frame is rotated 180°
Fig. 3. Change of direction of induced emf (and current) when the frame is rotated 180° with respect to the position shown in Fig. 2.

At the new position of the frame, the direction of the induced emf in conductors AL and BB reverses. This results from the fact that the direction in which each of these conductors crosses the magnetic lines of force has changed in this case. As a result, the polarity of the alternator brushes also changes: brush 3 now becomes positive and brush 4 negative.

Turning the frame further, conductors AA and BB again move along the magnetic lines of force and subsequently repeat all the processes from the beginning.

Thus, during one complete rotation of the frame, the induced emf changed its direction twice, and its value also reached the highest values twice in the same time (when the conductors of the frame passed under the poles) and was equal to zero twice (in the moments of movement of the conductors along the magnetic lines of force).

It is quite clear that an emf varying in direction and magnitude in a closed external circuit causes an electric current varying in direction and magnitude.

For example, when a light bulb is connected to the terminals of this simple generator, the electric current flows through the bulb in one direction during the first half turn of the frame and in the other direction during the second half turn.

Induced current curve for one turn of the frame
Fig. 4. Curve of the induced current per one turn of the frame

The curve in Fig. 4 gives an idea of how the current changes when the frame is rotated 360°, i.e. in one complete revolution. 4. An electric current that continuously changes in magnitude and direction is called alternating current.

Is the Milos volcano active?

The island of Milos in Greece is well known for its beautiful scenery. One of its prominent features is the Sarakiniko Beach, whose thick white rocks formed through highly explosive volcanic eruptions as almost the entire island is volcanic in origin. However, the volcano which caused the creation of this unusual landscape is by no means extinct but rather is still active.

Milos volcano


Looking around the island there are a number of spots in the landscape where volcanic gasses rise out of the ground, or bubbles rise to the surface just off the coast from submarine fumaroles. And, in 140 CE, a volcanic eruption was witnessed by Roman residents, leading to the destruction of a small town near the coastline. Although the island of Milos is less volcanically active than the island of Santorini, it could still produce a similar repeat of that Roman era disaster.

Where is the Milos volcano located?

The volcanic island of Milos is located in south central Greece, where it is 150 kilometers south-southeast of the city of Athens. While it might initially look like this island contains the remains of an ancient caldera, this is not the case. Rather, the water filled “U” shaped section represents a tectonic graben, aka a low point caused by two large faults which run adjacent to the edge of the bay. Volcanic activity over a timespan of several million years formed vents which were centered to the east and west of this bay, thus creating the island’s modern shape.

The island of Milos is part of the Aegean volcanic arc which also contains the volcanoes Methana, Santorini, and Nisyros. It exists due to a tectonic plate collision more than 150 kilometers southwest of the island where the African plate is subducting underneath the Aegean Sea plate. The melted material from this collision then migrates upwards until it erupts onto the seafloor, forming a chain of shallow submarine volcanoes.

Volcanic activity

Volcanic activity at Milos began 3.3 million years ago when a variety of unusually viscous rhyolite magma erupted onto the seafloor at depths of approximately 300 meters. Although some explosive activity occurred, it was largely suppressed by water pressure at this depth. Over tens of thousands of years a series of rhyolite lava domes grew on the ocean floor and overlapped one another, forming the beginnings of the Kimlos island which is located northeast of Milos.

The construction of the island of Milos began 3.08 million years ago when a similar series of submarine vents erupted onto the seafloor. Over the next several hundred thousand years several dozen vents erupted in the same region, forming much of what is now the western half of Milos. Around 2.6 million years ago, a cluster of highly explosive eruptions occurred at shallow depths to the east, ejecting large volumes of white tephra into the air.

Much of this tephra settled back to the slopes of the existing volcanic edifice, forming a thick bed of material which eventually became Sarakiniko Beach. For context, large rhyolitic eruptions often leave behind large volumes of white tephra that is primarily composed of pumice. Take for example the similarities the tephra layer has to the deposits left from the caldera forming rhyolite eruptions of Mount Churchill in Alaska. Due to a combination of volcanic activity and magmatic uplift, the volcano permanently broke the ocean surface around 1.4 million years ago. The two islands later connected, forming the modern U shaped Milos.

Milos volcano last eruption

In the last 1 million years, eruptions have almost universally occurred on the eastern side of the island. One of these eruptions formed a beautiful cluster of polygonal columns shown here. Since then, volcanic activity has been largely phreatic in nature, constructing a series of tuff rings.

One such 1700 meter wide tuff ring on the south of the island formed in a series of highly explosive eruptions between 110,000 and 60,000 years ago. The only historical eruption occurred in 140 CE when a volume of magma caused a large chunk of groundwater to flash to steam and explode.

This created a pyroclastic flow which raced towards the coastline, burning several buildings. These buildings would later be buried by lahar deposits up to 4 meters deep. Although an eruption is unlikely for the immediate future, if one were to occur it would almost certainly be phreatic and occur in the region which I have outlined on screen.

Studying the Brain with Quantum Mechanics?

Some psychologists think that the mathematical tools of quantum mechanics could help them understand human behavior. They don’t think that our brains actually function at the quantum level but that the statistics of quantum mechanics could help them predict human behavior.

Quantum mechanics may not seem like it has anything to do with human psychology, but some psychologists are starting to borrow concepts from the field to help make human behavior more predictable. SciShow Psych

Statistics can help us understand the big picture even when we don’t know all the lower-level details, like how a group of people will vote or how the brain selects certain details to remember and others to forget.

Psychologists have been exploring whether or not quantum mechanics can be used to help understand the brain. They’ve found that quantum cognition models are already performing as well or better than classical models at predicting some kinds of human behavior.

The classical cognition model doesn’t explain why subjects in the coin-flip experiment didn’t want to play again if they didn’t know whether they’d won or lost. However, the double-slit experiment shows that in the quantum world, simply not knowing can produce a totally unexpected result.

Scientists use quantum probability theory to predict human decision-making, even if we don’t understand precisely why. For example, they were able to use this theory to correctly predict people’s decisions in the coin-flip experiment, even when the classical model failed.

Human behavior

The order of questions you ask someone can affect the answer they give; for example, if you ask how they got along with their sister after they’ve gotten into a fight. Quantum mechanics can explain this by making the basic math seem more complicated.

Researchers studied 70 national surveys and used quantum-inspired math to make predictions about how the order of the questions would affect the answers. The predictions were right, and the results proved them right.

Human behavior can sometimes seem unpredictable, but the tools of quantum mechanics can give us a way to understand why. For instance, when you stare long enough at an optical illusion, your perception will randomly switch back and forth.

Scientists have found that the way people’s brains process optical illusions can be modeled as a simple, two-state quantum system and that this model can be used to explain why humans are sometimes so unpredictable.

New Cairo – Why Egypt Is Building a New Capital City?

Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is growing quickly. The government is building a new capital city in the middle of the desert. The city’s growth represents a massive political challenge.

Why Egypt Is Building a New Capital City? Egypt is building a new capital city right in the middle of the desert. But why are they doing this and why would they choose this unfavorable landscape outside of Cairo in the Sahara desert for the project?


The political administration is a massive burden for Cairo, which is already under growth pressure. The Egyptian government considers this a key threat to the country’s prosperity.

Most people in Egypt live along the Nile, where there is water for agriculture and industry, a milder climate, and fertile soil. The government is trying to buy time by discouraging people from having more than two children.

Egypt saw itself forced to build new cities in the desert. Since the 1970s, massive new development projects have been set up around Cairo to reduce the strain on the capital city.

New Cairo

Egypt’s brand-new capital, Cairo, will house all different ministries of the Egyptian government, including the cabinet building, the post-office headquarters, the Egyptian Central Bank, and People Square. It will also house the Egyptian Parliament.

The new administrative center of Egypt is a large area full of grand city squares. These wide avenues demonstrate strength. The new headquarters of the Egyptian Ministry of Defense is the largest defense complex globally.

The new capital of Egypt is being built to become a new Global Center with a strong economy and vibrant city life. It will also host major sports events, such as the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup.

Large mosques and a Coptic Orthodox Cathedral were built in the new city. Sunni Islam is the most widespread religion in Egypt.

Several universities are being built across the city in line with the country’s vision 2030 initiative.

The Iconic Tower, the tallest building in Africa, is being built in the central business district. An even taller building, Oblisco, is planned.

The master plan for the new capital of Egypt includes 20 residential centers with distinct architectural styles. It also includes a park six times the size of New York’s Central Park and an artificial river inspired directly by the Nile.

This planned city for the future of Egypt aims to be an international city with an Olympic sports complex, international science hubs, and expo centers. It will be interesting to see how natural growth will shape the city’s future.

“New Cairo – Wikipedia.” New Cairo – Wikipedia,, 15 Oct. 2016,