Category Archives: Astronomy

What is the deepest picture of the universe?

The latest Hubble discoveries are astonishing! Just look at this newly formed giant exoplanet from the constellation Auriga, which is nine times the mass of Jupiter. How about this breathtaking image of a head-on collision between two galaxies known collectively as Arp 143?

They passed through each other, causing a gigantic triangular firestorm with thousands of stars bursting into life. But the telescope could capture much bigger events. Its images changed astronomers’ view of many secrets of the cosmos. Hubble even became a time machine, allowing scientists to see into the past of our universe.

What other astonishing images did the telescope take? And how did a single image taken by Hubble change science once and for all?

How was the eXtreme Deep Field image captured? Hubble is acquiring a new target

Hubble telescope deep space image

To allow us to see deep space, the creators of the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] had to work hard. The need for an orbital observatory was discussed back in the seventies. Scientists wanted to get clearer images of deep space than those taken from Earth. Unfortunately, our atmosphere makes observations difficult by absorbing and distorting light. We’re going to show you some more incredible images, but first… a little quick history of Hubble.

In 1977, the U.S. Congress authorized the construction of a space telescope with the help of NASA. They decided to name it after the outstanding astronomer Edwin Hubble.

The most difficult thing was to make the huge observatory mirror. It was constructed of heat-resistant glass with incredibly thin but durable coatings – a layer of aluminum 65 [nm] nanometers thick protected with a magnesium fluoride layer 25 [nm] nanometers thick.

The entire space telescope turned out to be nearly the size of a school bus. Its primary mirror has a weight of 827 kilograms [1,825 lbs] and has a diameter of 2.4 meters [7.8 ft]. This mirror captures light from a space object and reflects it onto a secondary mirror 0.3 meters [12 inches] in diameter. This smaller mirror was placed in the optical tube.

It reflects light through a hole in the main mirror, forming an image in the telescope. From there it is sent to scientific instruments. At the time of Hubble’s launch, there were six such instruments. These are wide-angle and planetary cameras equipped with a set of 48 light filters to highlight light spectra. The wide-angle one has a large field of view, and the planetary one made it possible to greatly increase the observation points.

Another device, a high-resolution spectrograph, was designed to operate in the ultraviolet range. With its help, the telescope can see dim objects captured by a special camera. The High-Speed Photometer [HSP] can observe variable stars and other objects with varying brightness.

And the Fine Guidance Sensors [FGS] record changes in the position of the object. Scientific instruments were located in the tail section of the HST.

The Hubble Space Telescope is equipped with six gyroscopes, four reaction wheels, two main computers, two wing-like solar arrays, and four antennas. It consumes an average of 2,100 watts of power per day and orbits the Earth every 95 minutes.

Astronomers were thrilled for Hubble to be ready for the launch, but when the Space Shuttle Discovery took off with the telescope, the images were blurry. Spacewalking astronauts fixed the telescope during four servicing missions.

Hubble has been scanning the Universe for over 30 years, and scientists have transformed its images into color.

Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image

In 1995, astronomers used Hubble to study a piece of dark sky over the constellation Ursa Major. They found over 1,500 galaxies at various stages in their evolution, including some that were born during the infancy of our universe.

This is how the Hubble Deep Field was created. But it didn’t end there. In 2004, based on the first version, the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image was made, containing an estimated 10,000 galaxies. The snapshot contains galaxies of various ages, including the most distant red dim galaxies. Scientists believe they were born during the infancy of our universe when it was just about 800 million years old.

In 2012, astronomers unveiled the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, which was assembled by combining 10 years of the telescope’s data.

The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is an image of a small area of space in the constellation Fornax, created using Hubble Space Telescope data from 2003 and 2004. It contains about 5,500 galaxies, including many faint galaxies that are one ten-billionth the brightness of what the human eye can see.

Hubble’s two premier cameras captured 2,000 images of the same field of sky over 50 days to create the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (XDF). The XDF allows scientists to explore further back in time than ever before.

Webb Space Telescope’s First Full-Color Images

This Week at NASA! The much-anticipated release of the James Webb Space Telescope’s first full-color images and spectroscopic data is targeted for July 12 at 10:30 a.m. EDT, during a live broadcast from our Goddard Space Flight Center.

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That show will be available on NASA TV, the NASA app, the agency’s website, and various social media platforms. As each image is released, it will simultaneously be posted to social media and to our website at: nasa.gov/webbfirstimages. These first images will demonstrate Webb at its full power, ready to begin its mission to unfold the infrared universe.

After experiencing post-launch communications issues on July 4, teams for the Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment, or CAPSTONE mission have re-established contact with the spacecraft.

The team has determined that an improperly formatted command sent to the spacecraft’s radio caused the issues. Data received from the spacecraft indicate that it is in good health, and it operated safely on its own while it was out of contact with Earth. As originally planned, CAPSTONE is still expected to arrive to its lunar orbit later this year on Nov. 13. The mission will test a unique, elliptical lunar orbit for Gateway, a Moon-orbiting outpost that is part of our Artemis program.

On July 2, the Space Launch System, or SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for the uncrewed Artemis I mission completed the four-mile journey from launch pad 39B to the Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center. In the coming weeks, teams will make repairs, and perform checkouts and activities before returning SLS and Orion to the pad. Currently targeted for launch no earlier than August 2022, the Artemis I flight test to the Moon will allow NASA to check out rocket and spacecraft systems before astronauts fly to the Moon on Artemis II.

Engineers recently completed the first fully integrated powered testing of the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution, or TEMPO instrument on the Intelsat IS40e satellite. TEMPO is currently targeted to launch in January 2023.

From its geostationary orbit, it will take air quality observations at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

Its measurements will reach from Puerto Rico and Mexico to northern Canada, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, encompassing the entire lower 48 states of the U.S. After analyzing data from the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft’s sample collection “TAG event” at asteroid Bennu in October 2020, scientists were surprised to learn that the spacecraft’s arm sank almost half a meter into the asteroid.

This was far deeper than expected and confirmed that Bennu’s surface is incredibly weak.

It turns out that the surface material on Bennu is so loosely packed that stepping onto the asteroid might feel a bit like stepping into one of those pits filled with plastic balls that you might see at a kids’ play area. O-REx collected a handful of material and kicked up roughly six tons of loose rock during the TAG event. It will return its sample of Bennu to Earth in September 2023.

Are There Any Real Pictures of Mercury?

Mercury, the closest planet to our sun, is a very hot planet, with daytime temperatures reaching 430°C. However, the planet has cooled considerably over the years as its interior became colder.

Real Pictures of Mercury

MESSENGER images of Planet Mercury. Why craters are flat and Mercury’s past volcanism. #planetmercury #messengerprobe #mercury.

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Mercury was a lava planet billions of years ago, when the rocks on its surface melted. As a result, the planet’s surface reached temperatures of at least 600°C, potentially as high as 1300°C.

The lava in Raditladi crater on Mercury is much less runny than water. However, it can still travel for great distances before stopping. This is because the surface of the lava hardens, forming an insulating layer that keeps the lava flowing.

The lava was likely caused by a volcanic eruption or by the surface becoming so hot it melted the rock crust.

The smooth surface of Rustaveli, Copland, Polygnotus, and Rachmaninov craters are signs of lava flow.

Rachmaninov crater shows evidence of lava bubbling up from beneath the surface. Angkor Vallis shows clear signs of smooth lava flow from high to low ground, taking up vast swathes of the planet and turning it the orange colour we see today.

The area north east of Rachmaninov on Mercury is likely formed by volcanic activity. MESSENGER took detailed photographs of the area and found that it was covered in a fine dust.

The final indicator of volcanic activity on Mercury hints at eruptions so destructive that whole chunks were scooped out of the planet. The central peak of the crater Navoi is neither perfectly rounded nor tear-drop-shaped.

In conclusion

Scientists think that a crater on Mercury was not formed by an impact, but by the force of an erupting volcano. The crater’s remnants are scattered around the planet, and tell the story of a violent past.

So yes, there are definitely real pictures of Mercury. We hope you enjoyed exploring the solar system with us.

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Discoveries NASA made near the edge of the universe

The Hubble space telescope allows us to see deep into space, changing our understanding of astrophysics and shaping our knowledge of the universe.

In this post, we explore the most distant objects ever seen by the Hubble telescope.

Hubble Images: This is what NASA has discovered at the edge of the universe

The Butterfly Nebula is a 3800 light-year-distance galaxy. The glowing gas that was once a star’s outer layer has spread out into space, creating the wing-like shape you’re seeing now.

Pismis 24 is a star cluster 8000 light-years away, with blue stars in and around the core of the emission nebula. The stars are very hot, and their ultraviolet radiation causes the gas surrounding the star to heat and bubble around the star in remarkable clouds.

Pismis 24 is part of the diffuse nebula NGC 6357, a “cosmic nursery” with many proto-stars shrouded by dark gases.

Palomar 12 is a globular cluster of stars abducted from its home galaxy by tidal interactions with the Milky Way.

The Sombrero Galaxy is a flat, disk-like galaxy 30 million light-years away. It is notable for the blinding white core at its center and the distinct lanes of cosmic dust spiraling outwards, giving the galaxy its distinctive Sombrero Shape.

The galaxy NGC 1052-DF2 is a broad, elliptical galaxy, 65 million light-years from Earth. It is missing all of its dark matter and is possibly the first galaxy of its kind to display such an absence.

Earendel is a star in the Cetus constellation, 28 billion light-years away. It is expected to explode as a supernova in a few million years. It is suspected to be 50 to 100 times the size of our sun.

Hubble has shown us the distant galaxy HD1. The HD1 galaxy is 13.5 billion light-years away but is now 33.4 billion light-years away with the universe’s expansion taken into account.

The galaxy NGC 6770 is 33.4 billion light-years away and maybe a starburst galaxy producing stars at an unprecedented rate. It could also be home to enormous Population III stars that are far more luminous than the stars we are familiar with.

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What is the farthest star we can see

Hubble Space Telescope has exceeded all expectations. An individual star further out than any previously observed was detected by Hubble within the first billion years after the big bang.

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has detected a star (Earendel) 12.9 billion light years away. The farthest individual star ever seen to date. The star’s galaxy was magnified and distorted by gravitational lensing into a long crescent.

Astronomers studied a galaxy in detail and discovered a star that is at least 50 times the mass of our Sun and millions of times as bright as the most massive stars known.

How Big Is the Moon | The Moon’s size compared to Earth

The moon is the brightest object in our night sky. It seems quite large, but only because it is the closest celestial body. The Moon is a little more than one-fourth the size of the Earth (27%), which is much smaller than the size ratios of other satellites to their planets.

How big is the Moon compared to Earth?

Size comparison between Earth and the Moon, including diameter, surface area, and volume. Video made by: Spacetime.

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Our moon is the fifth largest satellite in the solar system. The Moon has an average radius of 1,737.5 km and a diameter of 3,475 km, less than one-third the diameter of the Earth. The equatorial circumference is 10,917 km. The area is about 38 million square kilometers, which is smaller than the total area of the Asian continent of 44.5 million square kilometers.

“If you imagine that the Earth is the size of a coin, then the Moon can be compared to a coffee bean,” the researchers say.

Earth's Moon is 3.7x smaller than Earth
SIZE COMPARISON – Earth’s Moon.

Mass, density, and gravity

The mass of the Moon is 7.35 × 10^22 kg, about 1.2% of the mass of the Earth. In other words, the Earth weighs 81 times more than the Moon. The density of the Moon is 3.34 g/cm3. It is about 60% of the density of the Earth. The Moon is the second densest satellite in the solar system after the Jupiterian Io, whose similar parameter is 3.53 g/cm3.

The Moon’s gravitational force is only 16.6% of the Earth’s. A man who weighs 45 kg on Earth will weigh only 7.5 kg on the Moon. A person who can jump 3 meters on Earth will be able to jump almost 18 meters on the Moon.

As on most worlds in the solar system, the Moon’s gravity varies depending on its surface characteristics. In 2012, NASA’s GRAIL mission mapped lunar gravity in unprecedented detail.

“When we see a marked change in the gravitational field, we can synchronize that change with surface topography features, such as craters or mountains,” said mission collaborator Maria Zuber of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in a statement.

45 Amazing Moon Facts You Know Nothing About.

Although we can observe the Moon in the night sky (and sometimes in daylight), it is difficult to put its size and distance from Earth into perspective.

In this article we answered the questions “How big is the moon?” “And how big is the moon relative to the size of the earth?”

This article tries to answer the question with the help of text, images, and video. At our site, you will find answers to all the important questions concerning the solar system.

Scientists Have Solved the 60-Year-Old Mystery of Fast Magnetic Explosions

Fast magnetic explosions. A solar flare can release enough energy in a few minutes to power the entire world for 20,000 years. These solar flares are triggered by an explosive process called magnetic reconnection, and scientists have spent the last half century trying to understand how this process works.

It’s not just a scientific curiosity: a better understanding of magnetic reconnection could provide a better understanding of nuclear fusion and more accurate predictions of particle storms from the Sun that could affect Earth-orbiting technology.

Video: What If a Massive Solar Storm Hit the Earth?

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Fast Magnetic Explosions

Now scientists from NASA’s Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) think they’ve figured it out. They have developed a theory that explains how the most explosive type of magnetic reconnection, called fast reconnection, occurs and why it occurs at a constant rate. The new theory takes advantage of a common magnetic effect used in everyday devices, such as sensors that synchronize a car’s anti-lock braking system or detect when a cell phone flap is closed.

“We finally understand what makes this type of magnetic reconnection so fast,” said the new study’s lead author, Yi-Hsin Liu, a professor of physics at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire and associate director of the MMS Theory and Modeling Group. “We now have a theory that fully explains this.”

Magnetic reconnection is a process that occurs in plasma, also known as the fourth state of matter. Plasma is formed when a gas receives enough energy to split its atoms, leaving a motley mess of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions that coexist. This high-energy, liquid-like material is extremely sensitive to magnetic fields.

From solar flares to near-Earth space to black holes, magnetic reconnection occurs everywhere in the universe, rapidly converting magnetic energy into heat and acceleration. Although there are several types of magnetic reconnection, one particularly puzzling variety is known as fast reconnection, which occurs at a predictable rate.

“We’ve known for some time that fast reconnection occurs at a certain rate that seems to be fairly constant,” says Barbara Giles, MMS scientist and researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “But what really drives that rate has remained a mystery until now.”

The new study, published in an article in Nature’s Communications Physics journal, explains how the rapid reconnection occurs precisely in collisionless plasma, a type of plasma whose particles are so dispersed that individual particles do not collide with each other. When reconnection occurs in space, much of the plasma is in a collision-free state, including plasma from solar flares and space around the Earth.

This theory shows how and why rapid reconnection is likely accelerated by the Hall effect, which describes the interaction between magnetic fields and electric currents. The Hall effect is a common magnetic phenomenon used in everyday technology, such as vehicle wheel speed sensors and 3D printers, where sensors measure speed, proximity, position, or electric currents.

During fast magnetic reconnection, the charged particles in the plasma, namely ions and electrons, stop moving as a group. When the ions and electrons begin to move individually, a Hall effect occurs, creating an unstable energy vacuum in which reconnection occurs. The pressure of the magnetic fields around the energy vacuum causes the vacuum to explode, releasing huge amounts of energy at predictable rates in a very short time.

The new theory will be tested over the next few years. A pyramid-shaped constellation of four space probes will orbit the Earth to study magnetic reconnection in a vacuum-free plasma. In this unique space laboratory, magnetic reconnection can be studied at a higher resolution than is possible on Earth.

“If we understand how magnetic reconnection works, we can better predict events that could affect us on Earth, such as geomagnetic storms and solar flares,” Giles said. “And if we understand how reconnection is triggered, it will also help energy research.

There Is a Mysterious Reverse Shock Wave Supernova Exploding Backwards

There Is a Mysterious Reverse Shock Wave Supernova Exploding Backwards

Image of the Cassiopeia A reverse Shock Wave.

A powerful shock wave traveling through a cloud of gas left by a star’s explosive death has a strange quirk: It’s traveling in the wrong direction, a new study shows.

According to the study, a section of the shock wave collapsed toward the stellar explosion, or supernova, in what the authors call a “reverse shock.”

Shock wave moving through the inner and outer shells of gas in Cassiopeia A.
This image shows the shock wave moving through the inner and outer shells of gas in Cassiopeia A. These blue arrows show the western part of the nebula’s shell moving back toward the center. Images courtesy of J.Vinkastronomie.nl.

This nebula, or gas cloud, is one of the closest supernova remnants to Earth, left by a supernova in the constellation Cassiopeia.

Approximately 16 light-years wide, the nebula is made of gas that was expelled both during and before the explosion that ripped apart the original star.

In theory, this shock wave should expand evenly, like a perfectly round balloon that’s continuously inflated by the shock wave from the explosion.

Image of Cassiopeia A as viewed by NASA's Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer.
Cassiopeia A as viewed by NASA’s Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (magenta) and NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory (blue). Image by NASACXCSAOIXPE

According to theoretical supernova models, Cassiopeia A’s western region has an unusual expansion. In the aftermath of the stellar explosion, something strange happened to the shock wave..

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Epic Journey to the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy Like Never Before

Take a trip through time and space, from Earth to the center of the Milky Way galaxy. A supermassive black hole, a cosmic giant, awaits you in the galactic core. You will travel faster than light out of the solar system and past the billions of stars that make up the Milky Way galaxy. From here, you can observe the cosmic chaos that drives the universe.

From Earth to the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy

Video Made By: V101 Science

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Milky Way appears from Earth as a band because of its disk-shaped structure. Galileo Galilei first reconstructed the band of light into individual stars using his telescope in 1610.

Until the early 1920s, many astronomers believed that the Milky Way contained all the stars in the universe. Then, Edwin Hubble proved that the Milky Way is only one in many other galaxies.

Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter estimated to be 100,000 to 200,000 light-years. Recent simulations indicate that some visible stars may extend up to a diameter of almost 2 million light-years in a dark matter area.

Imagine Seeing the Milky Way’s Center Like Never Before

This is where our Galaxy rotates during its orbit. It is located close to the solar system in the direction of Sagittarius, 24,000 light-years away. Still, optical light is inaccessible due to interstellar dust grains along its lines of sight.

However, it can be observed at wavelengths that are not affected by dust, including infrared, radio, and X-ray wavelengths.

A complex radio source has been detected near the Galactic center. Sagittarius A (SgrA*), which is a radio and X-ray source, has long been thought to be the location of a supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy.

Recent infrared observations have given this idea strength. This enabled us to plot the orbits of stars within the Galactic center’s light hours. These stars have very tight and fast Keplerian orbits around an object of about 3 million solar masses located at SgrA*.

Sagittarius A

The compact radio source Sagittarius A* is located in the center of the Milky Way and is part of the radio source Sagittarius A. It also emits in the infrared and X-ray range and other frequency bands. It is a high-density object – a supermassive black hole surrounded by a hot, radio-emitting gas cloud about 1.8 km in diameter.


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Was There a “twin” Earth in Our Solar System?

There is no doubt that Earth is a unique planet since it is the only planet in our solar system that has developed life. But what if it is not the only one out there? What if there is another Earth?

Video: What If Earth Had a “Twin” In Our Solar System?

Does Earth have a sister planet?

Among all the planets in the solar system, our Earth is unique because it is the only planet on which life has evolved. But what if we got a competitor? What if a second Earth appeared out of nowhere, then there would be two different scenarios. The first is the destruction of both planets and the second has an unexpected but rather logical ending.

However, let’s start with the disaster scenario. The second Earth with the same conditions could exist only if it received absolutely the same amount of sunlight as our planet.

The orbit of our Earth is perfect for receiving the required amount of solar heat. If we were a little farther away, the entire surface of our planet would resemble Antarctica, and if the Earth were a little closer to the Sun, we would all be living in a vast desert inhabited by only a few living creatures. So, for the second Earth to be identical to ours, it would have to follow the orbit of our planet.

Two massive objects can exist close to each other?

The union of the Earth and the Moon is a good example, but if the second object were as heavy and large as our planet, there would not be enough room for both. The gravity of two Earths would be a big problem. The two worlds would collide because they would be pulled toward each other.

This process would last hundreds of millions of years, and in the end, the two planets would turn into one huge world. And their remnants would fly around the newly formed planet, much like the rings around Saturn, or one of the planets would push the other out of its orbit. In this case, one of the Earths would hurtle toward the Sun and burn like a match in its atmosphere.

It should also be remembered that the Earth is moving at a speed of 67,000 miles per hour at any given time. That is more than 80 times faster than the speed of sound. Now imagine two giant planets moving toward each other at such a speed.

Even a microscopic organism living in the maw of a volcano would have no chance of surviving the collision of two Earths.

Earth’s twin

Even the moon would be torn to pieces by the blast wave, but let’s imagine that Earth’s twin is orbiting in a different orbit somewhere between Mars and Earth. Even in this situation, people’s lives would be changed forever.

By the way, the theory that Earth could have a twin has been around for a long time. The scientists of the past believed that the second planet could be hiding on the opposite side of the Sun. Thanks to modern technologies and astronomy, we know that this theory is not true. Otherwise, our telescopes and other devices would have already picked up some signals from this planet.

Scientists study space objects thousands of light-years away from us, so they would certainly notice another world nearby.

But be that as it may, let’s assume that the second Earth really exists and that we have discovered it recently. The entire field of astronomy and astrophysics would immediately be funded to the tune of hundreds of billions of dollars. The study of the twin of the Earth will become a priority goal for people. Experts will come up with hundreds of hypotheses about what the second Earth looks like and what is going on on it.


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Andromeda Will Collide With the Milky Way Sooner Than Expected


Andromeda Will Collide With the Milky Way

Video: Milky Way Will Collide With Andromeda Sooner Than Expected

Stars in our galaxy gleam brightly for us when we gaze into the night sky. I find it hard to believe that one day everything we see out there will be over. The entire Milky Way Galaxy and even our entire solar system will cease to exist. In this very moment, we are experiencing an incoming galaxy called Andromeda.

It’s frightening, but there’s something else very startling: the collision of these two galaxies is much closer than we had anticipated! Will humanity survive if Andromeda collides with the Milky Way?

What will happen if Milky Way and Andromeda collide?

A galactic collision could have a more profound impact than you think. Have you noticed that bright object in the sky? That is Andromeda, the nearest major galaxy to our Milky Way.

It is the most distant object you can observe with the naked eye. And… it is speeding toward us at 110 km/s (68 miles/s). A massive galactic collision will eventually bring Andromeda and our Milky Way together billions of years from now.

Andromeda Galaxy and Milky Way Galaxy are colliding. Should we be concerned?

Will Earth be destroyed when the Milky Way and Andromeda collide?

There is no threat to Earth from the Andromeda galaxy. There are only two possible scenarios in which the Earth could be destroyed during the slow-motion collision between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies. Either it collides with a massive body (either a planet or a large moon) orbiting a star, or it falls into one of the stars itself.

Our descendants may see quite a show in the night sky if Homo sapiens can survive on Earth for another two billion years.


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