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Ukraine’s Odesa is Brutally Bombed by Russian Air Strikes

In the video, you’ll see drone footage of residential buildings in Odesa, Ukraine, that have been ravaged by Russian airstrikes. The destruction is absolutely horrifying and may make you question what’s going on in the region.

Russian airstrikes brutally bombard homes in Odesa, Ukraine

#Russia #Ukraine

Drone footage shows the devastation left behind by Russian airstrikes on residential buildings in Odesa, Ukraine. Ukraine’s State Emergency Service released a video Wednesday (Aug. 17) showing the aftermath of a Russian missile strike 60 kilometers south of Odesa in the coastal town of Zatoka.

Ukraine’s civil protection agency said in a Facebook post that four people were injured in the impact, a fire broke out, and heavy damage was caused to a resort in the town.

Reuters was unable to independently verify the authenticity of the video, the date it was taken, and the location of the footage. The railroad bridge in Zatoka is an essential link between the south of the Odesa region and the rest of Ukraine. It has already been attacked several times during the war.

The Russian airstrikes in Odesa, Ukraine have caused a great deal of damage to homes and other buildings in the area.

Even though the Ukrainian government has been trying to repair the damage, it will take a long time for the city to recover. In the meantime, people are living in fear and uncertainty, not knowing when or where the next Russian airstrike will hit.

Анонимный серфинг на Android

Вы цените свою конфиденциальность при работе в Интернете? Тогда вы не должны пропустить эту статью.

Каждый раз, когда вы пользуетесь Интернетом на своем смартфоне, вы неизбежно оставляете следы. Однако существует функция, позволяющая работать в Интернете без сохранения истории просмотров: приватный режим. На Android его можно активировать за несколько секунд. Мы покажем вам, как это работает, и как при желании вы сможете пользоваться Интернетом полностью анонимно.

Серфинг инкогнито на Android: вот как это сделать

Предположим, вы хотите запретить Google Chrome сохранять такие данные, как история просмотров или файлы cookie. В этом случае необходимо включить режим приватного просмотра. Для этого выполните следующие действия:

  1. Откройте приложение Chrome.
  2. Нажмите на три точки справа от адресной строки.
  3. Выберите опцию Новая вкладка Инкогнито.

Когда вы успешно включите режим конфиденциальности на Android, вверху появится значок инкогнито – сочетание шляпы и очков.

Если в качестве браузера вы используете Mozilla Firefox, процедура будет простой. Просто откройте приложение Firefox и нажмите на символ маски в правом верхнем углу. Теперь вы можете работать в режиме инкогнито.

Заниматься серфингом полностью анонимно? Это возможно и с Android!

Даже если различные данные браузера не сохраняются в приватном режиме на Android – к сожалению, вы не будете полностью невидимы с помощью этой практичной функции. Закладки, которые вы создаете в приватном режиме серфинга, не остаются скрытыми, как и загрузки. Последние не видны в самом браузере, но файлы сохраняются в папке.

Кроме того, как ваш провайдер, так и различные веб-службы могут получить доступ к вашему IP-адресу, что означает, что вы не сможете пользоваться Интернетом анонимно, как вы надеялись бы, используя приватный режим. Если для вас важно, чтобы личные дела оставались действительно личными, мы рекомендуем другую альтернативу.

Эффективным способом, позволяющим анонимно пользоваться Интернетом на Android, является браузер Tor. Он маскирует ваш IP-адрес и тем самым обеспечивает почти незаметный серфинг в Интернете. Однако сеть Tor немного медленнее, чем классические браузеры.

Использование инструментов VPN намного безопаснее. VPN-сервис легко активируется через настройки смартфона Android и гарантирует анонимный серфинг во Всемирной паутине. Браузер Opera, например, предлагает бесплатную функцию VPN.

Приватный серфинг на Android: самое важное с первого взгляда

  • Хотите выходить в Интернет со своего смартфона, не отслеживая историю браузера? Тогда просто активируйте режим приватного серфинга в своем мобильном браузере.
  • Однако эта функция не скрывает ваш IP-адрес; ваш провайдер и различные веб-службы могут продолжать видеть, что вы делали в Интернете.
  • Предположим, вы хотите пользоваться Интернетом полностью анонимно и использовать Android. В этом случае мы рекомендуем использовать браузер Tor или инструмент VPN.

6 советов, как сделать ваш телефон Android быстрее

OnePlus Nord CE 2 Lite 5G leaked before launch

As OnePlus prepares to launch the Nord 2T and Nord CE 2, a new Nord series smartphone has surfaced online. The OnePlus Nord CE 2 may get a Lite version, which will reportedly be launched soon. Most likely, it will be a budget offering with 5G connectivity.


OnePlus Nord CE 2 Lite 5G

Specifications for the OnePlus Nord CE 2 Lite 5G have surfaced online thanks to OnLeaks in partnership with Smartprix. It will feature a 6.59-inch Full HD monitor with a high refresh rate. Rumor has it that the display size is larger than the original Nord CE 5G with a 6.43-inch diagonal. It could run on a Qualcomm Snapdragon 695 5G SoC combined with 6GB / 8GB of RAM and 128GB / 256GB of storage.

The upcoming budget smartphone will get a triple rear camera. It has a 64-megapixel primary lens and two 2-megapixel lenses, so it’s essentially one camera with two 2-megapixel lenses. There is probably a 16-megapixel selfie camera on the front. The smartphone will have a 5,000 mAh battery with 33W fast charging support.

The smartphone is expected to be released soon.

OnePlus Nord CE 2 specifications

OnePlus Nord CE 2 may have a 6.4-inch FHD + AMOLED monitor with a refresh rate of 90 Hz. It will feature the MediaTek Dimensity 900 chipset and will have up to 12GB of RAM, which could be a differentiating factor from the Lite version. The front camera is expected to remain the same as the lightweight version.

The OnePlus Nord CE 2 is rumored to launch on February 11, 2022. The company could also launch the Nord 2T in April, possibly after it is announced during the Mobile World Congress.

Unofficial preliminary specs:

NetworktechnologyGSM / HSPA / LTE / 5G
launchingHas been announcedNot yet announced
StatusRumors
bodyDimensions
Weight
a buildingGlass front, plastic frame, plastic back
SIMDual SIM (Nano-SIM, dual standby)
displayTypeFluid AMOLED
size6.59 inches, 104.8  cm2
resolution1080 x 2400 pixels, 20: 9 aspect ratio (density ~ 399 ppi)
PlatformOperating SystemAndroid 11, OxygenOS 11
ChipsetQualcomm SM6375 Snapdragon 695 5G (6 nm)
ProcessorOctagon cores (2 × 2.2 GHz Kryo 660 Gold and 6 × 1.7 GHz Kryo 660 Silver)
GPUAdreno 619
MemoryCard slotNo
Internal128GB 6GB RAM, 128GB 8GB RAM, 256GB 8GB RAM
Main cameraTriple64 megapixels, f / 1.8, 26mm (wide), 0.7 micrometers, PDAF
2 megapixels, f / 2.4, (macro)
2 megapixels, f / 2.4, (depth)
PropertiesFlash LED, HDR, panorama
video4K @ 30fps, 1080p @ 30fps
Selfie cameraunit16 megapixels, f / 2.5, (wide), 1 / 3.0 “, 1.0 micrometers
PropertiesHDR
video1080p@30/60fps
AudioSpeakerYes
3.5 mm socketYes
communicationWLANWi-Fi 802.11 a / b / g / n / ac, dual-band, Wi-Fi Direct, hotspot
Glands5.1, A2DP, LE, aptX HD
G.P. aceYes, with A-GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BDS, NavIC
NFCNo
radioNo
USBUSB Type-C 2.0, USB On-The-Go
PropertiesSensorsFingerprint (below display, optical), accelerometer, proximity, compass
batteryTypeLi-Po 5000 mAh, non-removable
chargingFast charging 33W
VariousColorsblack; Other colors

Disclaimer. We can not guarantee that the information on this page is 100% correct.


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Secret Lab Engineered the Most Sustainable Food in the World

Solar Foods is a startup company that makes food from thin air. Although we currently produce enough food to feed the world – and hunger is a matter of access, not abundance – the environmental costs of abundance are high.

Most Sustainable Food in the World

Even though plant-based alternatives to meat are becoming more popular and gaining market share, their production still requires large-scale agricultural practices.

Even though growing plants has a smaller carbon footprint than raising animals, that doesn’t mean it doesn’t make sense. Solar Foods believes that the answer to a more sustainable food supply is not to expect better farming practices or to consume less animal products.

To create this new, sustainable food source, Solar Foods has developed a novel food – a protein from a single-celled organism called Solein. The single-celled protein, which primarily requires electricity and water, has the potential to grow in the harshest environments on Earth. Sustainable food can be produced even in places where conventional farming is difficult or impossible.

Food sustainability, a recipe against pollution

We are what we eat and maintaining a sustainable diet reinforces our commitment to the environment.

This type of healthy eating is:

  • Rrich in vegetables
  • Encourages the consumption of local products
  • Generates less waste
  • Limits the consumption of meat and fish to protect biodiversity

Almost all of us strive to eat in a healthy and balanced way. But do we know how our diet affects social well-being and the health of the planet?

Many of our eating habits are delicious to the palate, but very unsustainable for the environment, the economy and the socio-cultural reality of countries.

How much does our food system contribute to climate change?

Food production leaves a rather bitter taste in nature. The United Nations (UN) estimates that the food industry is responsible for 30% of global energy consumption and 22% of greenhouse gases. As Greenpeace noted in a 2018 report on food sustainability, livestock alone accounts for 14% of these emissions on a global scale.

According to estimates from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), by 2050 there will be more than 9 billion people on the planet, and we will need to produce 60% more food.

Our oceans are also suffering the consequences of irresponsible nutrition. Massive fishing to meet the demand for fish is leading to the degradation of biodiversity and marine ecosystems. In this particular case, the FAO warns that global fish production must increase by 18% by 2022 to meet consumer demand. On the land, agricultural and livestock operations:

  • Discharge chemicals into waterways
  • Pollute oceans
  • Contribute to the degradation of rivers, lakes, and coasts.

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A Storm in a Cup of Tea | Green Tea Cookies

There is nothing like green tea cookies to understand the chemistry of the processes that the drink goes from the field to the steaming glass.

Tea and coffee are the most consumed beverages in the world, except of course for clean water. Their popularity is related to their abundance of substances that create in us, humans, a stimulating feeling, although for the plants themselves these are simply chemical means of protection against pests and natural disasters. 

Over the years, humans have learned to dilute these substances and change them, and have fallen in love with their taste. Tea leaves and coffee beans have common defenses, such as caffeine, which is primarily identified with coffee, and the polyphenols we will focus on here.

Tea begins its journey as a leaf rich in enzymes that determine the nature of the final product: a glass of hot drink. Where does its unique flavor come from and what is the difference between the different types of tea? With the purpose of answering these questions, we present to you this time a delicious recipe for green tea cookies.

What will you need?

  • ¾2 cups white flour.
  • 2 tablespoons of green tea leaves from tea bags (about 4 bags). It is recommended to crush the leaves into a powder.
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder.
  • ½ teaspoon baking soda.
  • ½ a teaspoon of salt.
  • 1½ cups sugar.
  • 1 egg.
  • 1 teaspoon of vanilla extract.
  • 200 grams of soft butter left for a few hours at room temperature (or oil).

What to do?

  • In a bowl, mix the dry ingredients, except for the sugar, to a uniform mixture.
  • Whisk the butter with the sugar in a food mixer until an airy mixture is formed. Add the egg and vanilla while whisking.
  • Continue to whisk and add the mixture of dry ingredients in small portions. Make sure that the dough can be separated from the sides of the bowl. 
  • Wrap the dough ball in cling film and roll it into a roll about 5 cm in diameter. Wrap the edges well and refrigerate for at least half an hour.
  • Remove the dough roll from the refrigerator and slice without the plastic wrap into slices about 1 cm thick. Arrange the slices on baking paper and bake in a preheated oven at 180 degrees for about 12 minutes.
Green tea cookies.
Green tea cookies.

And now for the science

The tea plant is native to southeast Asia and southern China. The origin of its name lies in the Chinese word chá, which refers to a beverage made from the green leaves of the Chinese camellia (Camellia sinensis).

There are hundreds of varieties of this plant, and over the years people have developed methods to grow varieties with leaves that have the desired characteristics.

Two thousand years ago, the people of southwest China knew that techniques such as squeezing the leaves and heating them for a limited time make it possible to have tea in a variety of flavors.

Fine tea is made from the plant’s young leaves and unopened leaf buds, which are the most delicate and vulnerable and also have the highest levels of chemical preservatives and inactive enzymes. Nowadays, most commercial tea is harvested by machine, without careful selection of the leaves, so blends also contain mature leaves that have a less rich flavor.


How It’s Made: Tea.

Main stages of tea production

Immediately after picking, the tea leaves begin to wither. The processing process that the leaves go through at this stage greatly prolongs their life and also preserves their flavors and even improves them. This is a natural process that happens to the fruit and leaves after they detach from the mother plant.

The Withering process has a dual function. The first is the primary drying of the leaves. During Camilla, the amount of water in the leaves decreases by about 30%, which considerably changes its structure and adds flexibility, which will further facilitate its design. In addition, the Withering process is responsible for many chemical changes that occur in the leaves.

Fresh tea leaves have a bitter and even slightly pungent taste, which is due to the polyphenols they contain – a variety of colorless compounds from the phenol family, whose function is to protect the plant from pests. After harvesting, the leaves are crushed and left in the air for a limited time so that the enzymes they contain – proteins that accelerate certain chemical processes – can act in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

Under the influence of enzymes, phenolic compounds change and become substances with a different taste and darker colors. Short-term exposure to enzyme activity produces a very bitter and slightly pungent yellowish compound called theaflavin, while longer exposure produces, among other things, Thearubigin – a more complex compound that tastes somewhat less bitter. The longer the exposure time, the darker the color of the tea and the richer its flavor.

Chemical changes that happen in the tea leaves during production.
Tea Manufacturing Process.

After harvesting, the leaves are forcibly crushed or injured in other ways to break down the cellular structure and release their components. To control the taste and intensity of tea one must control the oxidation of the leaves, through strict control over the temperature and humidity at which they are kept. In the process of oxidation the chlorophyll (the substance that gives the leaves their green color) is broken down under the influence of enzymes, in a way that changes the color of the leaves and their taste and aroma. 

To slow down or stop the oxidation, the leaves are moved to a new storage place where the temperature is higher. During heating the enzymes are damaged or destroyed and thus it is possible to control the duration and intensity of oxidation

The oxidation process plays a key role in creating many flavor and aroma compounds that determine the type of tea we receive. If it is not done properly, unwanted flavors may form.

After the leaves have been oxidized and processed, an additional drying process is carried out, followed by hot air flowing over the leaves. The final drying ensures that the chemical reactions stop and bacteria and fungi have difficulty developing.

Tea classes by colors

We all hear about red tea, white tea, green … but what difference is there between all these varieties of tea? As we said, all of them come from the same tea plant, but their difference lies in the process that their leaves undergo within the factory where they are made. The main types of tea are:

  • White tea
  • Green tea
  • Yellow or gold tea
  • Blue tea (also called Oolong)
  • Red tea (known in the West as black tea)
  • Dark tea or fermented tea (which includes Pu’er)

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Made in China: A Look Under the Hood of the Chinese Economy

The story of one real estate company illustrates the most troubling fundamental diseases of the Beijing administration.

Ghost Economy

There is one simple fact that even investors in China do not know about the world’s second largest economy: In China, GDP growth is not a measure of economic performance, but a goal. This week we look at how this fundamental problem has become a good excuse for heart attacks among investors in recent weeks.

In most countries around the world, governments set various goals for their economic activity:

  • Employment rate in the economy
  • Increasing consumption
  • Reducing inequality
  • Promoting high-tech industry, and more…

The Chinese government does the same, but unlike most governments in the world, it also sets growth targets in terms of gross domestic product (GDP).

The government determines how fast the economy should grow in a given year. This target is used to determine spending by:

  • The central government in Beijing
  • Governments in provinces across China
  • Investment targets for state-owned enterprises

If the Chinese economy is growing at 6 percent annually, this is not a measure of economic health, but a measure of the government’s ability to meet its targets.

What difference does it make whether growth in China is an index or a target?

A slowdown in growth or even a decline in GDP may indicate malinvestment, inefficiencies in the economy, production difficulties, and more. When growth itself is a target, it decouples from the health of the economy and gradually makes the economy inefficient.

For example, when the growth rate is an explicit goal, companies borrow to build more factories and “generate growth,” even though the investment is unlikely to be recouped by building the factories. When this turns out to be the case, the company finds that it must burden itself with more debt and loans to pay off the previous debt.

As Chinese debt grows – much faster than economic growth – the Chinese economy is plagued by inefficiency and flooded with unsustainable businesses. The only thing keeping them afloat is the low borrowing rates that allow them to take out new loans to repay the principal debt and the interest on the previous loans. In addition, the risk is misjudged because people believe that the economy cannot experience a recession.

When the bubble swells

The real estate sector in China is a prime example of these problems. Following the 2008 global economic crisis, the Chinese government encouraged the construction of entire cities — infrastructure, transportation systems, residential buildings, and office towers — to maintain growth. At the same time, it urged banks to lend on favorable terms to companies and individuals. The money flowed into the real estate sector, encouraging more construction. Companies and individuals began buying homes not only in the hope of living in them, but as an investment property.

The result: Today, between one-fifth and one-quarter of China’s homes are empty. People have been investing in real estate for a whole decade because apartment prices have gone up and up. Apartment prices have climbed because people have invested in real estate, and this positive feedback loop has strengthened itself. China is currently “sitting” on a real estate bubble that surpassed the size of the US real estate bubble before the subprime crisis that toppled the world economy in 2008.

The Beijing government is aware of all this. Since 2011 it has been trying to cool the real estate market. In 2020, a new regulation was announced that requires over-leveraged companies – those whose debt exceeds the assets in their possession – to reduce the debt steadily. This move shocked the land on which many buildings are founded.

The immediate threat

Video: China real estate company Evergrande Group narrowly avoids default.

Evergrande, a real estate giant that has taken out loans and issued huge bonds to finance its construction projects. When the administration reduced Evergrand’s ability to raise bonds, it appealed to consumers and sold apartments at full or almost full price. As with pyramid scams, Evergrande also used the money to repay loans or to fund other ventures.

This step was not enough. Evergrande began to be forced to sell assets – completed or unfinished construction projects – in order to obtain cash that would allow it to reduce its debt in accordance with government guidelines. Such assets are sold at a discount, because of their condition and because of the necessity to meet the debt reduction targets; And the result is a drop in prices, which could affect the entire Chinese real estate market.

The administration is not willing to rescue Evergrande directly. But it does intend to make sure that the crisis does not spread to the entire economy. Beijing has begun taking over Evergrande Group real estate projects that have not yet been completed. Now handing them over to government companies that will complete the construction themselves.

In the long run this is bad news. It is not clear that if these construction projects are economically justified. Beijing may find that it has simply rolled the hot potato over to government companies, which will have to absorb the losses. The inefficiency of the Chinese economy will continue. And the debt problem will not go away, but will continue to grow.


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What consequences will the supernova explosion of Betelgeuse, the giant star, have for the Earth?

What would be the consequences for the Earth if Betelgeuse exploded in the form of a supernova? Let’s first see what a supernova is to get an idea of what it’s all about.

Supernova

A constant nuclear fusion reaction takes place in the core of stars. So why don’t stars explode? Well, because the weight of the remaining mass of the star, which presses on the core from all directions due to the effect of gravity, keeps the explosion confined to its center. That’s why stars have a spherical shape.

Early in their lives, stars glow by fusing hydrogen in their cores into helium. This process releases a tremendous amount of energy that raises the temperature of the rest of the star’s mass into a ball of glowing gas (plasma, for the picky ones) that is so hot it glows with its own light, just like a piece of iron after being heated by a blowtorch.

But hydrogen reserves are limited and, when it runs out, only helium remains in the core. Medium-sized stars, like our sun, are unable to fuse helium atoms into heavier elements to produce energy so, for an instant, the nuclear fusion reaction that energizes the star stops and, without the resistance offered by the shock wave generated in the core, the rest of the star rushes towards the helium core with all its weight, compressing it. As it compresses, the core heats up and transfers enough heat to its surroundings that hydrogen fusion can begin again in the surrounding shell.

This layer around the inert helium nucleus has a larger volume than the original nucleus, so it produces more energy and, therefore, a higher temperature. When something is heated, it expands, so this increase in the amount of heat produced is translated into the expansion of the star, which begins to grow until it reaches a diameter up to 400 times its original size. For this reason, even though the nucleus is producing more energy than usual, it has to be distributed over a larger surface area. The surface of the star begins to cool down to a reddish or orange hue. Hence these stars are called red giants.

But since it cannot generate matter out of nothing, the star becomes less dense as it swells and its outer layers spread freely through space. The expansion of the star will continue until, finally, there will come a point when all its mass is scattered through space and all that remains of the star are the remnants of the compact, whitish core. Such bodies were given the name of white dwarfs.

White dwarf Star.
The remains of the outer layers of a star, with the white dwarf at its center.

And that’s a supernova? Some kind of silent fart slowly spreading across the room?

No, no, this is what happens with stars of a similar size to the sun. It is the largest stars, with a mass at least 5 to 10 times that of the sun, that end their lives with a glorious cosmic explosion.

And why tell me about it if it’s not going to be on the exam?!

Star self-destruction in the form of a supernova

The gravity of very massive stars is so intense that the nuclear fusion reactions taking place in their core are forced to proceed at a much faster rate. For a medium-sized star like the sun, the fuel can last about 10 billion years. A giant star like Betelgeuse, on the other hand, runs out of fuel in 10 million years.

At the beginning of their lives, very massive stars quickly exhaust their hydrogen reserves but, thanks to the pressure to which their core is subjected, when the hydrogen is exhausted they are able to start fusing helium to produce carbon.

Not only that, but the extreme conditions that govern the core of a massive star force the new heavier elements that form in it to fuse into heavier and heavier elements:

  • Carbon
  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen
  • Iron…

Until, in the end, nickel begins to accumulate in the core. The problem with nickel is that its fusion stops releasing energy: it only absorbs it. Therefore, when the nucleus accumulates enough nickel, the nuclear fusion reaction stops. And with it the shock wave that keeps the rest of the star’s mass at bay.

With nothing to slow it down. The entire mass of the star rushes at once toward the core at speeds up to 23% of the speed of light. The tremendous pressure generated throughout the star triggers nuclear fusion reactions throughout its mass that, with nothing to contain it, cause an explosion of such magnitude that it can outshine the entire galaxy that contains it.

And that, ladies and gentlemen, is a supernova. A thermonuclear bomb several million kilometers in diameter.

Supernovae and the Effect They May Have on Earth

The following image shows a supernova in the galaxy M82 that occurred at a distance of 11 to 12 million light-years. To put this in perspective, remember that one light year is about 10 trillion kilometers, the distance light travels in one year (at a speed of 300,000 km/s).

M82 supernova.
But as bright as this supernova was, at 11 million light-years it was too far away to be visible to the naked eye. Much less to match the brightness of the Moon at night.

On the left side you see the image of the galaxy before the explosion and on the right side as it is happening. Remember that this galaxy contains about 50 billion stars, judging by the brightness emanating from the single star that just exploded.

The closest supernova on record took place in 1987, 168,000 light-years away, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a small satellite galaxy circling our own). At this distance, the supernova was visible to the naked eye from the southern hemisphere with a magnitude of 3.03which is equivalent to the brightness of the faintest stars that can be seen at night in an urban environment.

Betelgeuse Supernova

Video: Betelgeuse is destined to explode as a supernova. Can Betelgeuse destroy Earth? Consequences for the Earth if Betelgeuse exploded in the form of a supernova

Betelgeuse is very close in astronomical terms. As for the actual distance, it is about 642 light years. Of course: with a diameter of about 1,600 million kilometers, Betelgeuse is a gigantic star. If we substituted this star for our sun, its surface would surely engulf everything on its way to the orbit of Jupiter.

Betelgeuse is a huge star, yes, but it is not as massive as it appears. Precisely because it is a red giant, that is, a star that has begun to expand greatly with low density. Although its radius is 950 to 1200 times that of our Sun, its mass is “only” between 7.7 and 20 times greater.

But, if its mass is so spread out in space… How is it going to explode in the form of a supernova?

Good question. Although some of its mass is scattered throughout the cosmos, Betelgeuse is so large that it still contains a compact and immense core at its center. A very massive star in itself, which is the one that will trigger the supernova.

Artist's impression of the star Betelgeuse and the gas that surrounds it. Can Betelgeuse destroy Earth?
A photo of Betelgeuse and the gas shell that surrounds it, emitted by the star itself. Consequences for the Earth if Betelgeuse exploded in the form of a supernova.
(Source)

But don’t start saving up to buy a ship to flee to another solar system. Keep the following in mind.

When a star explodes, it releases a very energetic shock wave that spreads in a spherical way through space.

When a star explodes, it releases a very energetic shock wave that spreads out into space in a spherical shape. The geometry of this shock wave is important. The energy released in the supernova explosion must be distributed over a larger and larger area as the size of the sphere increases. In the case of a sphere, the energy is dissipated with the square of the distance. This means that if the shockwave sphere doubles in size, its surface area increases by four times, so the energy released must be distributed over an area four times larger.

For example, if you are at any distance from the explosion, you will receive a certain amount of energy. But if you double the distance between you and the explosion, you will no longer receive half the energy, but only a quarter. If you quadruple the distance, you will receive 16 times less energy, if you stand at a distance 8 times the original distance, you will receive 64 times less radiation than in your starting position, and…. Well, you get the point, don’t you? The energy of such phenomena, just like the light or WiFi signal, dissipates very quickly as it moves through space.

And, of course, despite the fact that supernovae release unimaginable power, the distances that separate things in space are equally tremendous. That’s why, according to astronomers’ estimates, a supernova would have to be very close to Earth (between 50 and 100 light years away) for it to pose any danger. Between us and Betelgeuse there are 642 light years of empty space in which the explosion can lose energy, so we have nothing to worry about.

So Betelgeuse isn’t going to wipe Earth off the map?

The only thing that would be triggered on Earth by Betelgeuse supernova explosion would be a nice light show.

We can calculate, more or less, how bright a supernova like Betelgeuse would be in the sky. We know that a supernova reaches a maximum luminosity of about 10 billion times that of the sun and that Betelgeuse is about 642 light-years away.

Following this method, we can see that the supernova would start to shine at magnitude -14.06 at the moment of the explosion. From that moment on, its brightness could evolve in two ways:

  1. If it were a type I supernova, it would shine with a brightness of -14.06, which is about three times the brightness of the full moon (-12.74), and then its brightness would decrease until it disappears.
  2. On the other hand, if it going to be type II, it would stabilize at a brightness of -11.55 for a few months after reaching its maximum brightness at the beginning, and it would be visible in the sky during the day and at night with a brightness three times less than that of the full moon. After that, its brightness gradually decreases until it equals that of the other stars and eventually disappears. This is the most likely scenario.
Supernova light curves.
Supernova light curves. (Source)

The claim that Betelgeuse could become a supernova any day is an exaggeration, for a change, made by the press and documentaries to make their content more eye-catching. In reality, the most recent studies estimate that this day is still about 100,000 years away. It could happen sooner, of course, but the probability is very low. In short, it does not pay to spend every night of your lives awake watching Betelgeuse, waiting for it to explode. Because you will surely waste your time for nothing.

What is Caesium-137

Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope of caesium, which has a mass number (A) equal to 137, because it corresponds to the sum of the number of protons (55) and neutrons (82).

Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope (radioisotope) of the chemical element Caesium (Cs), whose atomic number (Z), that is, the number of protons in the atomic nucleus, is equal to 55, and the number of neutrons is 82. Thus, the name “caesium-137” comes from its mass number (A), which corresponds to the sum of the atomic number and the neutrons (55 + 82 = 137). Thus, its representation is given by 55137Cs.

Cs-137 was discovered by means of a technique called spectroscopy by scientists Robert W. E. Bunsen (1811-1899) and Gustav R. Kirchhoff (1824-1887), who were professors of chemistry and physics, at the German university of Heildelberg.

This radioisotope emits radiation from its nucleus. As shown below, it disintegrates, releasing, for example, beta radiation (-10β), with the consequent formation of another, even more harmful radioactive element, barium-137:

55137Cs → -10β + 56137Ba

137Cs

Caesium-137 is very dangerous to humans because:

  • It emits ionizing particles and electromagnetic radiation that can penetrate various materials, including human skin and tissue
  • Interact with molecules in the body, and have devastating effects

This interaction occurs because Cs-137, like all radioactive isotopes, emits radiation with sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms and produce cations (positively charged particles). The cations are highly reactive and can in turn cause changes in the reactions that occur in the cells of living tissues. The reaction may alter DNA and possibly causing the appearance of cancer cells.

  • Beta particles released from caesium-137 penetrate up to 2 cm when they hit the human body and cause severe damage.
  • Gamma radiation (00γ) is also released. Gamma radiation has greater penetrating power and can completely penetrate the human body and cause irreparable damage.
  • Barium-137, which is formed from caesium-137, also releases gamma radiation.

Caesium-137 is an element of the alkali metal family (family 1 on the Periodic Table). Caesium is similar to potassium(K) (which also belongs to this family) and is able to replace it in living tissue.

Goiânia Caesium-137 accident

An example of how harmful this radioisotope can be was the incident that occurred in Goiânia – Goiás in September 1987. Two garbage collectors found a capsule containing caesium-137 (it actually contained about 19 g of caesium chloride (CsCl) in the rubble of a disused hospital. The scavengers took the capsule and sold it to a scrap yard.

When the capsule broke, radioactive material was released. The accident attracted the attention of many people because of the luminescence of caesium, a powder that glows bluish in the dark. In fact, the name of this element comes from the Latin word “caesius,” meaning bluish-gray sky. The result was:

  • The death of four people
  • More than 200 people got exposed to Cs-137
  • The creation of more than 7 tons of contaminated waste

Caesium-137 contamination can be prevented by isolating it with thick concrete walls.

However, caesium-137 has several useful uses, for example:

  • In industry
  • Food preservation
  • Medicine

The lead in the capsule prevents this radiation from penetrating and contaminating surrounding materials. Today, cobalt-60 is used instead of caesium-137.

Cs-137 is also absorbed by water and soil and has a half-life of about 30 years.

Why Do Green Bananas Turn Yellow When They Ripen

Why does a banana look yellow? The peel is initially green because it is rich in chlorophyll, an important component of photosynthesis that also has antioxidant properties (Müller & Kräutler, 2010).

During ripening, the chlorophyll in the banana peel is converted into other, less colorful pigments. This produces carotenoids such as lutein (yellowish color).

Video: Facts About Bananas

Why Does a Banana Look Yellow

The ripe banana gets this yellowish color due to the aging of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the substance responsible for photosynthesis.

Before ripening, the banana has a green color because the chlorophyll is still very young and the fruit is still connected to the stem or has many resources to perform its metabolic activities.

After some time, its color changes.

The same phenomenon occurs with tree leaves in autumn. Also, with various other fruits such as avocados and pears that change color.

It is important to remember that bananas are green in their immature state. Once bananas harvested, they begin an accelerated process of cellular respiration. This process is necessary for the complex sugar, which is starch, to be converted into simpler sugars.

Facts About Bananas

The banana is one of the most common products and can be found in the fruit bowls of most households. It is one of the first foods that man began to eat, and because of its richness, it is widespread throughout the world. It is not only used as a dessert, but is often an ingredient for cooking.

  • There are many types of bananas, and some of them are inedible.
  • The most consumed varieties in the world are those of the Cavendish group, which are also the most widely grown.
  • Originally, bananas were not yellow, they were green and then red. Yellow bananas are derived from a species discovered in 1836.
  • Although they look dry and firm, bananas are made up of 75% water.
  • There are over 300 species of bananas that are grown in over 100 countries.
  • Bananas are harvested green and stiff. They ripen in special chambers containing ethylene.
  • An average banana weighs about 100 grams.
  • When bananas ripen, the starch turns into sugar, so ripe bananas are sweeter.
  • Banana plants produce bananas all year round.

Who Is the Real Inventor of the Light Bulb?

Who Invented the Electric Bulb? When asking who invented the light bulb, you should first ask what light bulb. Several light bulbs have been developed over the past few centuries, and each was invented by different inventors and companies.

So let’s talk about the original light bulb, the first light bulb in history.

Video: Who Invented The Light Bulb?

The light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison. He worked for years on the lamp to replace the oil lamps and failed. After all, they did manage to develop an electric light bulb in the 1800s. But the light emitted was relatively poor and the bulbs would “go out” in a short time because the heating of the carbon pieces caused them to decay quickly.

Edison wanted a high-quality light bulb that would really illuminate, last a long time and not wear out. He set to work to develop an electric bulb that wouldn’t burn out so quickly after so many others had failed. He tried more and more combustible materials that would last a long time, but was unsuccessful.

Carbon in an oxygen-free environment

But someone whose motto was “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work” kept trying. Thomas Edison made an important discovery when he discovered that carbon wire could last up to 40 hours in an oxygen-free environment.

But the real breakthrough came when Edison discovered that carbon-coated bamboo fibers were an excellent fuel for the electric light bulb. When he combined the coated bamboo fibers with an oxygen-free environment, he was able to develop light bulbs that lasted about 1,500 hours of operation before burning out completely.

This is how Edison’s light bulbs were developed. When they hit the market, they were an incredible commercial success. A funny detail – all the lighting poles in the streets at the time had labels that said “Do not light with a match!”.

Edison did not immediately realize how much the invention of the light bulb would:

  • Change modern society
  • Develop the world’s economy
  • Industry
  • Science

However, that didn’t stop him from fairly quickly developing equipment to generate electricity. Also, a variety of inventions that established and streamlined the use of the light bulb. This would go on to be the most important invention of modern times and form the basis for entire industries in the years to come.

Incidentally, one of the light bulbs that Edison created in 1880 after many failed attempts still lights a part of the Smithsonian Museum in Washington. Of course, it was a light bulb whose filament was made of carbon-coated bamboo.

Facts about light bulbs

Light bulbs use different formats to produce the lighting effect. The traditional way that a light bulb works is by sending electricity through a filament. Other types use electrically reactive gases or chemicals. Modern lamps use a solid wire that runs through the entire bulb and is illuminated by an electrical charge.

There is a variety of different types of light bulbs including:

  • incandescent
  • compact fluorescent tube
  • mercury vapor
  • metal halide
  • high pressure sodium vapor
  • LED
  • ultraviolet lights

In this article we have explained who invented the bulb. We hope you enjoyed reading this article that talks about the invention of the electric light bulb. Please leave a comment below.